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  How to choose the right brushcutter for your needs?
Geschrieben von: ptipeias - 26.10.2021, 06:00 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

How to choose the right brushcutter for your needs?

    Whether you are an amateur or a professional who loves gardening and landscaping, getting the right tools for your needs often becomes a challenge. Brush cutters are versatile tools for lawn cutting and trimming of shrubs and weeds. These days, as a buyer one can get overwhelmed by the sheer variety of options available these days. To make matters worse, there is an information onslaught by advertisers. It only adds to the clutter. Let's find out how to get the right brushcutter for your needs.

    Brush cutters are available in the following variants:

    a)Handheld brush cutters

    b) Walk-behind brush cutters

    c) Tow-behind brush cutters

    When it comes to cutting a small patch of vegetative growth or trimming dense bushes, electric brush cutter are the tools to fall back on.

    Hand held brush cutters:These brush cutters have function in a fashion similar to string cutters but have relatively more power and have more powerful engines than their string cutter counterparts. For thick grass and overgrown weeds,bushes, handheld brush cutters are ideal. These brush cutters are available in 2 cycle and 4 cycle engines as well.

    Walk-behind brush cutters: Brush mowers are also known as walk-behind brush cutters and are the perfect choice for projects of areas of overgrown vegetation. If you want to tend to areas which do not require frequent maintenance, a walk-behind brush cutter is ideal for cutting and trimming.

    Tow- behind brush cutters:If you have a bigger field to cut, tow-behind brush cutters are appropriate as they can be attached to a garden tractor or ATV. They are easy to use and effective in cutting thicker bushes and weeds.

    Let’s look at some of the gasoline brush cutter accessories and attachments:

    For cutting various types of vegetation, different types of brush cutting blades should be used.

    For grass and weeds, brush cutters with blades having 8 or lesser teeth are ideal.

    For thick weeds and shrubs, brush cutters with blades having 9-40 teeth are effective.

    For cutting small trees and saplings, brush cutting blades with more than 40 teeth are recommended.

    Brush knives or triblades are designed to cut through reeds and shrubs.

    Husqvarna is mainly known for its powerful chainsaws and lawnmowers. But it also makes other power tools including the brush cutters present in this article.

    This Husqvarna Gas Straight Shaft brush cutter is present in the 1st position in this article as it is one of the best gas-powered options out there. It comes with a 28 cc gas engine that has a total of 2 cycles. And this offers more than enough power to its 17-inch cutting head. As a result, you can easily cut all of the grass and weeds in the lawn of your backyard.

    It uses a mixture of unleaded gas and a 2 cycle oil mixture for running the engine. You get a very long shaft of 52 inches in this brush cutter. And this is quite long when compared with other options out there. As a result, you can easily work on your lawn without any back pain issues. It even comes with a small handle on the shaft that results in a highly ergonomic design. This hedge cutter comes included with the T25 trimmer head that easily cuts grass.

    As per the name, TrimmerPlus offers all kinds of accessories and tools related to trimmers and brush cutters. And you can find a great brush cutter attachment from TrimmerPlus in this article.

    The TrimmerPlus BC720 brush cutter attachment is in the 2nd position in this article as it one of the highest-rated options out there. It offers an 8-inch cutting head for cutting grass and weeds. While it is not the widest or the largest options out there, it still works quite great due to its sharp blades.

    You can find a 4 tip steel blade in this brush cutter which is also reversible if needed. And this results in an excellent cutting performance from this cutter.

    As per its name, it comes with a J-handle for its attachment mechanism. This means that you can use it with any string trimmer of your choice that offers a J-handle mechanism. Another great thing about this brush cutter is that it comes with a shoulder strap. As you would expect, this makes it a highly ergonomic tool for cutting grass in your backyard.

    Makita is a highly reputable and premium brand of power tools that offers all kinds of tools. It even makes an excellent brush cutter that we have mentioned in this article.

    Makita’s XUX01ZM5 is present in the 3rd position in this article as it one of the best performing electric brush cutters out there. As per its name, it uses a total of 2 batteries, where each battery is of 18 volts. In other words, it is a highly powerful 36-volt brush cutter that works flawlessly for cutting grass and weeds.

    And as it uses lithium-ion batteries, they can be easily charged and replaced while offering decent power to the motors.

    Due to these batteries, this brush cutter can offer a total of 3-speed options. And these range from 4200 RPM to 7100 RPM. You can even attach other shaft attachments in this brush cutter without any issues. As a result, it can be sued for various operations. The electric motor of this tool can offer sufficient torque for these attachments.

    Greenworks is another highly popular brand of electric power tools. And we are here with a great electric brush cutter option from Greenworks in this article.

    Greenworks claims that this PRO 16 inch brush cutter has an 80-volt motor that offers power equivalent to a 26 cc gas-powered engine. This means that it is a highly powerful tool that can be used to easily cut the grass, weeds, and other plants in the lawn of your backyard.

    Another great thing about this brush cutter is that it is compatible with a wide range of attachments. You can even use attachments made for gas-powered brush cutters.

    As per its name, you get a 16-inch cutting head in this heavy duty electric grass cutter. And this is one of the largest electric brush cutter options available out there. Due to this, it can easily cut a lot of grass at once. Unfortunately, you do not get included batteries with this electric brush cutter. And if you want to use it in cordless mode, you have to buy its 2.0 Ah batteries separately.

    A Brush cutter is a device usually mounted to a vehicle, rod or shaft for cutting/trimming weeds crops, grass, paddy, woods and other foliage. A brush cutter uses a metal blade that cuts thick/dense crops weeds, paddy and woods up to 4 inches in thickness.

    Easy to Use:

    Brush cutters are an easy and convenient option in farming/gardening rather than a shovel, sickle, chopper or axe.

    We've come across many incidents where a person using the above-mentioned tools has hurt themselves.

    Brush cutters being attached to a rod, shaft or machine is always held at a minimum distance from the body making it much safer for someone using it.

    Also, the installations process is extremely easy for someone to understand the way of the method of using it.

    Brush Cutter Blades and their Usage:

    TCT Blade: These blades are disk-like in structure and are used for chopping off or cutting woods ranging up to 4 inches in diameter.

    3 Teeth Blade: 3 teeth blades are useful for chopping off the grasses in your garden or fields.

    Non-TCT Blade: These are heavy-duty blades and are used for cutting crops, paddy and weeds.

    Versatile and Durable:

    Brush Cutter is a generally durable and reliable machine, as long as they receive proper maintenance.

    The blades are made of heavy-duty metals making it last long when maintained properly. In some cases, you can use the same blade for several years.

    Also, the brush cutter’s comes with different blades and attachments for the use in very same machine making it portable and cost-effective. So, a machine which will help one in cutting, weeding, trimming all at the same time.

    Convenient:Because of the design, it helps user to-reach areas where larger machines can’t be used. Most electric brush cutter strimmer have a straight shaft and anti-vibration mechanism to reduce uneasiness/ tiredness when used for long intervals.

    So, before you start the buying process we would want to ask you some questions:

    1. For which purpose you'll be using the machine?

    2. What is your budget?

    3. What is the best brand available in the market for Brush Cutter Machine?

    Let us help you in taking the decision by answering the questions of yours making it much easier to decide.

    1. For which purpose you'll be using the machine?

    As it’s mentioned earlier brush cutters are used for trimming the grasses in your lawn to harvesting the crop in fields to even chopping off wood blocks (4 inches in thickness). In Toolsvilla one can find out petrol and electric operated brush cutters.

    Electric Brush Cutter: Electric brush cutters are available from 200V to 240V.They're generally used for cutting the paddy, grass, crops, weeds on the fields smaller in areas depend on the distance convenient for the electric wires. Being the engines run on the high voltage the work is done clear and precise.

    Petrol Brush Cutter: Areas which are dense or having hard soil needs a high power engine to work efficiently. Petrol brush cutters are available in 2 strokes and 4 strokes engines. 2-strokes engines are easier to maintain tend to operate with much more balance, and have smaller engines, high fuel consumption in comparison with 2 strokes, making them well-suited for handheld garden tools. 4-stroke engines are heavier, give more power output, and run cooler, less fuel consumption and significantly bit costly than the 2 stroke ones. Also, petrol brush cutters come in two different variants, shoulder-mounted and in the backpack.

    Brush Cutter with Attachments: Brush cutters also come with different attachments such as Tiller, Hedge Trimmer, Chainsaw, Water Pump etc.

    Brush Cutter with Tiller/Weeder/Cultivator: a tiller/weeder/cultivator attachment can help you out for tilling the soil and make it ideal for planting the crops; there have some brush cutters which are come with tiller/weeder/cultivator attachment. There have 2 different types of tiller, flat tiller and round tiller.

    Brush Cutter with Hedge Trimmer: trimmers are generally used where the mowers are unable to reach to manage the hedges in the lawn and garden. So you can also get a hedge trimmer attachment in your brush cutter.

    Brush Cutter with Chainsaw: Chainsaws are types of equipment that are used to cut down trees.

    Although, you also can get trimmer, pole pruner, hedge trimmer, cultivator attachments altogether in a single brush cutter machine.

    Brush Cutter with Water Pump: Water Pump attachments used to irrigate the farm from canal or water storage. This attachment used in small areas.

    2. What is your budget?

    This is a very important part for a customer’s point of view, everyone wants a product which comes in minimum cost but wants to get the maximum advantages from it and Toolsvilla always been giving the priority on it.

    One can get a brush cutter for cutting the crops, weeds, grass and paddy in Between Rs. 7,000 to Rs. 12,000. If someone looking for a brush cutter with attachments than prices is starts from 14,200 to 34,665 or if anyone searching for branded or quality brush cutters like Kisankraft, Stihl, Husqvarna, Kasei, Makita, Oleomac, Honda etc, starts from Rs. 8,000 to Rs.49.900.

    3. What is the best brand available in the market for Brush Cutter Machine?

    There have so many quality brush cutters you can get from the market, but the most popular branded brush cutters are Makita, Stihl, Kasei, Husqvarna, Kisankraft, Hitachi, Honda etc. Toolsvilla deals in various brush cutter brands like Kisankraft, Makita, Kasei, Husqvarna, Stihl, Oleomac, Dongcheng and other Imported Series.

    We hope this buying guide for brush cutter machine will help you out to select the right brush cutter machine as per your requirements.


  Face masks hurting your ears? These easy solutions can help
Geschrieben von: ptipeias - 26.10.2021, 05:59 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

Face masks hurting your ears? These easy solutions can help

    In this period of the Covid-19 pandemic, a protective mask has become a common object of use to contain virus transmission. The imminent need for masks has led many governments to produce them, including surgical masks with mask earloop or masks with side cuts at the ears. Among those on the market, surgical masks with elastic loops are the ones most chosen by parents for their children. These elastics cause constant compression on the skin and, consequently, on the cartilage of the auricle, leading to erythematous and painful lesions of the retroauricular skin when the masks are used for many hours a day. Pre-adolescent children have undeveloped auricular cartilage with less resistance to deformation; prolonged pressure from the elastic loops of the mask at the hollow or, even worse, at the anthelix level can influence the correct growth and angulation of the outer ear. In fact, unlike when using conservative methods for the treatment of protruding ears, this prolonged pressure can increase the cephaloauricular angle of the outer auricle. It is important for the authorities supplying the masks to be aware of this potential risk and for alternative solutions to be found while maintaining the possibility of legitimate prevention of the potential spread of the virus.

    We read with interest the article by Ors [1] on prominent ear deformities and its recurrence rate. This article gives us the opportunity to better understand the effectiveness of nonsurgical options for the treatment of ear anomalies in young patients (5–14 years).

    The current COVID-19 pandemic has imposed the worldwide use of masks in addition to social distancing. The use of masks applies to everyone, even children, certainly if over the age of 5–6 years.

    The masks distributed to the population by government bodies are of various types, both as regards to their shape and the systems for fastening them to the head, but, basically, they are divided into 4 large categories: masks with elastic (ear loops), strips of fabric with lateral slits (side cuts at the ears), with tapes, single cervical band.

    Small children are rarely made to wear the masks with tapes, due to the difficulty in positioning and tying the tapes.

    The “single band” masks that wrap around the neck have the drawback of sliding downwards and, therefore, not keeping the nose covered; furthermore, if used during the summer season, they tend to produce a humid microenvironment that favours the development of dermatitis and eczema.

    Many adults (health care workers and others) complain about discomfort associated with round elastic earloop, due to the continuous pressure of the elastic behind the ear. Several methods have been proposed to overcome this problem: from the use of hairpins to hang the elastic bands from the forehead to the use of various types of bands that pass behind the back of the neck and to which the loops of the mask are attached. However, these methods used by adults are not used by children, resulting in constant pressure of the elastic on the skin of the posterior portion of the auricle.

    All bodies subject to the action of a force undergo deformation, which depends not only on the intensity of the force applied, but also on the nature of the body itself. In general, deformations can be of two types: elastic, which disappear when the force is no longer applied, and non-elastic, which remain even after applying the force. Cartilage has memory thanks to the presence of elastic fibres; although this allows it to return to its initial condition when deformed, if the stimulus persists, it can lead to permanent changes in its conformation.

    This principle has been used for many years for the conservative correction of protruding ears [1, 2]. Obviously, in order to use these non-surgical correction techniques (e.g. bands, patches, ear splint therapy) with benefit, the development of the various components of the ear must not be completed. This can happen if applied in children who are less than 8–10 years old, because after that age the cranial volume, with its appendages, almost completely reaches total growth [3]. The literature reports important successes in the treatment of protruding ears with conservative methods, with a success rate that shows a decline from 91% in infants to 33% in 9-year-old children [1, 2, 4].

    The main advantage of this treatment is that it keeps the splint in position for a long time, so that it can exert constant pressure on the growing cartilage, changing it into the desired shape.

    The success of these conservative methods confirms that a constant pressure maintained for a long time on the cartilage of the ear of growing children can change the shape and increase the cephaloauricular angle of the outer auricle.

    Griffin et al. have demonstrated that the cartilage of the auricle has a homogeneous structure, although the concha has a greater resistance to deformation than the helix [5]. This resistance is comparable to that of nasal cartilage (about 200 times lower than the resistance of Medpor prostheses used for ear reconstruction). The concha had a greater rate of loading than the antihelix when taking into consideration the anatomical structure of the cartilages. One reason for this difference may be that the concha is a curved structure, which can support compressive loads [5]. Therefore, if a constant elastic force were applied at the level of the concha, it would be less harmful than if applied at the antihelix level.

    It is well known that the pressure of the mask elastic on the skin of the posterior concha of the auricle for a long time causes pain and erythema, due to the continuous rubbing of the elastic on the skin in the same position. This has led some users to apply silicone rear ear supports that decrease decubitus, but increase the distance of the auricle from the mastoid region. Others, on the other hand, prefer to change the position of the elastic by moving it more towards the antihelix than the mastoid region, thus applying an elastic force in an area where the cartilage has less resistance, with a consequent increase in the cephaloauricular angle of the outer auricle.

    Therefore, the use of surgical masks with flat elastic earloop in growing children for many hours a day not only leads to intolerance and decubitus of the retroauricular skin (as for adults), but can also influence the correct growth and angulation of the outer ear with the consequent increase in the incidence of protrusion of the outer auricle (Fig. 2a and b).

    One alternative to the surgical mask is the earmuffs mask (in which the ears are completely wrapped, held in place by mask elastic cord at the back of the ear) or the band mask with lateral slits at the ears: also these models, due to their conformation, tend to create a constant pressure on the antihelix, increasing the auriculocephalic angle (Fig. 2c).

    Many scientific societies of paediatrics and pedagogy have raised doubts about the risks that this situation of forced constriction by Covid-19 can cause on the normal psychophysical development of children; however, it has never been pointed out how the use of surgical masks with ear loops can be harmful to the correct development of the auricle by permanently modifying the cartilage of the concha in growing children.

    We are confident that highlighting this potential complication to those involved in the procurement of masks will stimulate the search for alternative solutions, while maintaining the possibility of legitimate prevention of the potential spread of the virus.

    Face masks are an essential part of protecting yourself and others from coronavirus, but that doesn't make them any easier to wear. Over the past few weeks, we've realized firsthand how masks can wreak all sorts of havoc on our skin. Now many of us are dealing with another unfortunate side effect: discomfort on our ears.

    Those loops that keep your mask in place can put a lot of pressure on your ears and aggravate your skin, but there are a few ways to prevent that. From skin care tips to face mask ear savers, these are the tricks experts swear by.

    The majority of us only wear a mask on Halloween as temporary props we can take off at any time. But now that we're wearing masks out in public on a regular basis, we're quickly realizing that they can be uncomfortable.

    "Moisture and friction can cause irritation, as prolonged mask use can irritate sensitive skin. Some masks are tied around the head, and some are fastened by loops that go over and around the ears, so the ears can (be) irritated as well," said Dr. David Lortscher, board-certified dermatologist and CEO of skin care brand Curology.

    Irritation can show up in many forms, including bruising, raw skin or increased acne and breakouts.

    When face mask straps rub against your ears, they create friction that can result in inflammation in the outer skin layer and blistering.

    "This can cause open wounds or scabbing of the skin, which increases your risk of developing an infection. Plus it makes it a challenge to apply a mask again over those areas," said Dr. Joshua Zeichner, board-certified dermatologist and director of cosmetic and clinical research at Mount Sinai Hospital's department of dermatology.


  Mystery of the wheelie suitcase: how gender stereotypes held back the history of inve
Geschrieben von: ptipeias - 26.10.2021, 05:57 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

Mystery of the wheelie suitcase: how gender stereotypes held back the history of invention

    In 1970 an American ABS luggage executive unscrewed four castors from a wardrobe and fixed them to a suitcase. Then he put a strap on his contraption and trotted it gleefully around his house.

    This was how Bernard Sadow invented the world’s first rolling suitcase. It happened roughly 5,000 years after the invention of the wheel and barely one year after Nasa managed to put two men on the surface of the moon using the largest rocket ever built. We had driven an electric rover with wheels on a foreign heavenly body and even invented the hamster wheel. So why did it take us so long to put wheels on suitcases? This has become something of a classic mystery of innovation.

    Nobel prize-winning economist Robert Shiller discusses the matter in two different books, Narrative Economics and The New Financial Order. He sees it as an archetypal example of how innovation can be a very slow-footed thing: how the “blindingly obvious” can stare us expectantly in the face for an eternity.

    Nassim Nicholas Taleb is another world-renowned thinker who has pondered the mystery. Having lugged heavy suitcases through airports and railway stations for years, he was astonished by his own unquestioning acceptance of the status quo. Taleb sees the rolling suitcase as a parable of how we often tend to ignore the simplest solutions. As humans, we strive for the difficult, grandiose and complex. Technology – such as having wheels on suitcases – may appear obvious in hindsight, but that doesn’t mean it was obvious.

    Similarly, in management and innovation literature, the late invention of the rolling suitcase often appears as somewhat of a warning. A reminder of our limitations as innovators.

    But there is one factor that these thinkers have missed. I stumbled upon it when I was researching my book on women and innovation. I found a photo in a newspaper archive of a woman in a fur coat pulling a suitcase on wheels. It made me stop in my tracks because it was from 1952, 20 years before the official “invention” of the rolling suitcase. Fascinated, I kept looking. Soon, a completely different story about our limitations as innovators was rolling out.

    The modern suitcase was born at the end of the 19th century. When mass tourism first took off, Europe’s large railway stations were inundated with porters, who would help passengers with their bags. But, by the middle of the 20th century, the porters were dwindling in number, and passengers increasingly carried their own PP luggage.

    Advertisements for products applying the technology of the wheel to the suitcase can be found in British newspapers as early as the 1940s. These are not suitcases on wheels, exactly, but a gadget known as “the portable porter” – a wheeled device that can be strapped on to a suitcase. But it never really caught on.

    In 1967, a Leicestershire woman wrote a sharply worded letter to her local newspaper complaining that a bus conductor had forced her to buy an additional ticket for her rolling suitcase. The conductor argued that “anything on wheels should be classed as a pushchair”. She wondered what he would have done if she had boarded the bus wearing roller-skates. Would she be charged as a passenger or as a pram?

    The woman in the fur coat and the Leicestershire woman on the bus are the vital clues to this mystery. Suitcases with wheels existed decades before they were “invented” in 1972, but were considered niche products for women. And that a product for women could make life easier for men or completely disrupt the whole global ABS+PC luggage industry was not an idea the market was then ready to entertain.

    Resistance to the rolling suitcase had everything to do with gender. Sadow, the “official” inventor, described how difficult it was to get any US department store chains to sell it: “At this time, there was this macho feeling. Men used to carry on luggage for their wives. It was … the natural thing to do, I guess.”

    Two assumptions about gender were at work here. The first was that no man would ever roll a suitcase because it was simply “unmanly” to do so. The second was about the mobility of women. There was nothing preventing a woman from rolling a suitcase – she had no masculinity to prove. But women didn’t travel alone, the industry assumed. If a woman travelled, she would travel with a man who would then carry her bag for her. This is why the industry couldn’t see any commercial potential in the rolling suitcase. It took more than 15 years for the invention to go mainstream, even after Sadow had patented it.

    In the 1984 Hollywood film Romancing the Stone, a rolling suitcase is featured as something of a silly feminine thing. Kathleen Turner’s character insists on bringing her wheeled suitcase to the jungle, to the great annoyance of Michael Douglas, who is trying to save them from villains, while tracking down a legendary gigantic emerald.

    Then, in 1987, US pilot Robert Plath created the modern cabin bag. He turned Sadow’s suitcase on its side and made it smaller. In the 1980s, more women started to travel alone, without a man to carry their spinner luggage set. The wheeled suitcase carried with it a dream of greater mobility for women.

    Bit by bit, the rolling suitcase became a feature of the modern businessman’s arsenal. We forgot all about the intense and very gendered resistance the product had encountered. But we shouldn’t – because this story carries some important lessons about innovation that we need to hear today.

    We couldn’t see the genius of the wheeled suitcase because it didn’t align with our prevailing views on masculinity. In hindsight, we find this bizarre. How could the predominant view on masculinity turn out to be more stubborn than the market’s desire to make money? How could the crude idea that men must carry heavy things prevent us from seeing the potential in a product that would come to transform an entire global industry?

    But is it really that surprising? The world is full of people who would rather die than let go of certain notions of masculinity. Doctrines like “real men don’t eat vegetables”, “real men don’t get check-ups for minor things” and “real men don’t have sex with condoms” kill very real men every single day. Our society’s ideas on masculinity are some of our most unyielding ideas, and our culture often values the preservation of certain concepts of masculinity over life itself. In this context, such ideas are certainly powerful enough to hold back technological innovation.

    The rolling suitcase is far from the only example. When electric cars first emerged in the 1800s they came to be seen as “feminine” simply because they were slower and less dangerous. This held back the size of the electric car market, especially in the US, and contributed to us building a world for petrol-driven cars. When electric starters for petrol-driven cars were developed they were also considered to be something for the ladies. The assumption was that only women were demanding the type of safety measures that meant being able to start your car without having to crank it at risk of injury. Ideas about gender similarly delayed our efforts to meet the technological challenges of producing closed cars because it was seen as “unmanly” to have a roof on your car.

    Assumptions about masculinity play a similar role today in relation to innovation around sustainability. For example, we often think that consumption of meat and preferences for large cars – instead of travel by public transport – are essential features of masculinity. This holds innovation back and prevents us from imagining new ways of living powered by new technologies.

    Perhaps in the future we will laugh at our current struggle to get many men to adopt a more environmentally friendly lifestyle, in the same way that we shake our heads at how unthinkable it was for a man to wheel his suitcase 40 years ago.

    Ideas about gender also limit what we even count as technology. We talk about “the iron age” and “the bronze age”. We could also talk about “the ceramic age” and “the flax age”, since these technologies were just as important. But technologies associated with women are not considered to be inventions in the same way that those associated with men are.

    Gender answers the riddle of why it took 5,000 years for us to put wheels on suitcases. It’s perhaps easy to think that we wouldn’t make similar mistakes today. But many of the structural problems are still here. We still have male-dominated industries not interested in dealing with the fact that women influence 80% of all consumer decisions. Products are still being built and designed with only men in mind and we have a financial system that stubbornly refuses to see the potential of women’s ideas.

    Today, less than 1% of UK venture capital goes to all-female teams. Among the very few women who do get funded, a very large majority are white. Of course, venture capital isn’t everything – there are other ways to fund and scale innovation – but the fact that men, more or less, have a monopoly is certainly a symptom of an economy where women’s ideas are not heard.

    The many economists and thinkers who have thought about how we didn’t put wheels on suitcases until 1972 were right to note that this story is a symptom of a larger problem. It was just a slightly different problem than the one they imagined it to be.

     This article was amended on 8 July 2021. Bernard Sadow invented the rolling suitcase in 1970, not 1972, which was the year the invention was patented.

    Mother of Invention: How Good Ideas Get Ignored in an Economy Built for Men by Katrine Mar?al is published by William Collins (£18.99). To support the Guardian order your copy at guardianbookshop.com. Delivery charges may apply.

    More than 1.5 million readers, from 180 countries, have recently taken the step to support us financially – keeping us open to all, and fiercely independent.

    With no shareholders or billionaire owner, we can set our own agenda and provide trustworthy journalism that’s free from commercial and political influence, offering a counterweight to the spread of misinformation. When it’s never mattered more, we can investigate and challenge without fear or favour.

    Unlike many others, Guardian journalism is available for everyone to read, regardless of what they can afford to pay. We do this because we believe in information equality. Greater numbers of people can keep track of global events, understand their impact on people and communities, and become inspired to take meaningful action.

    We aim to offer readers a comprehensive, international perspective on critical events shaping our world – from the Black Lives Matter movement, to the new American administration, Brexit, and the world's slow emergence from a global pandemic. We are committed to upholding our reputation for urgent, powerful reporting on the climate emergency, and made the decision to reject advertising from fossil fuel companies, divest from the oil and gas industries, and set a course to achieve net zero emissions by 2030.


  CNC Milling vs. CNC Turning: All You Need to Know
Geschrieben von: ptipeias - 26.10.2021, 05:56 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

CNC Milling vs. CNC Turning: All You Need to Know

    CNC machining is a rapid manufacturing process that turns digital 3D designs into plastic or metal parts by selectively cutting away material. Many companies require CNC machining service to make parts and prototypes, and many industries use the versatile technology.

    But CNC machining comes in various forms. Although all CNC machining technologies follow a similar workflow — software turns the digital design into machine instructions, which instruct the CNC machine to cut material — the hardware for cutting material can differ greatly between machines.

    This article discusses the main differences between two of those machines: CNC mills and CNC turning (or lathes centers).

    In the article we discuss the essential features of CNC milling parts and CNC turning while also presenting the main advantages of each technology and a selection of common parts that companies can manufacture using each process.

    CNC milling is one of the most common CNC machining service, and machinists can use it to make a wide variety of CNC machined parts. Prototype companies often use CNC mills to make one-off functional prototypes.

    CNC mills use computer instructions to move a rapidly rotating cutting tool along three or more axes. When the spinning cutting tool makes contact with the workpiece, it removes material in a controlled manner. The cutting tool makes a succession of passes against the surface of the workpiece until the workpiece resembles the desired part.

    Most CNC mills keep the workpiece stationary, holding it down on the machine bed with a vice. However, multi-axis CNC mills may rock or rotate the workpiece to create a greater number of cutting angles. This allows the machinist to create more complex parts without having to manually reorient the workpiece.

    Providers of rapid prototyping services use CNC machining because it is a one-stop, end-to-end process with short lead times.

    CNC turning is a form of CNC machining that machinists use to make rounded, cylindrical, and conical parts. Although it is less versatile than CNC milling, it is one of the most popular CNC machining services and rapid prototyping services.

    Machines that carry out CNC turning parts are called CNC lathes or CNC turning centers. They are different from CNC mills in that they rapidly rotate the workpiece in a chuck but do not rotate the cutting tool. The cutting tool, affixed to a turret, moves towards the spinning workpiece under computer instructions and removes material where necessary.

    A CNC lathe can cut the outside of the workpiece or bore through the inside to create tubular CNC machined parts.

    The turret of the machine may have multiple cutting tools that can be individually engaged as required.

    Advantages of CNC Milling

    CNC mills offer numerous advantages to manufacturers and prototype companies. Unlike lathes, mills are versatile machines capable of creating a range of different shapes. Furthermore, a variety of cutting tools can be used to serve different operations such as roughing and end-milling.

    Although they are manufacturing machines in their own right, mills are also useful for post-machining. For example, they can be used to add details to turned, molded, or 3D printed parts.

    CNC milling is also fast, repeatable, and inexpensive in low volumes — partly because it does not require tooling. It is therefore found among manufacturing services and rapid prototyping services.

    Advantages of CNC Turning

    The biggest advantage of CNC turning is its ability to create round profiles. It is much more difficult to achieve perfect roundness using other CNC machining parts services like CNC milling or CNC routing.

    CNC turning is also highly accurate, which makes it a valuable technology for boring holes of precise dimensions with set tolerances.

    CNC milling and CNC turning can be combined to reap the benefits of both processes. In most cases, CNC turning takes place first, allowing the machinist to mill further (asymmetrical) details on the part.

    As a rule of thumb, CNC turning is best for parts with round, cylindrical, or conical profiles, and aluminium CNC milling parts is best for everything else. If in doubt, a machining expert can guide you to the right CNC machining service for your unique project.

    That being said, CNC milling and CNC turning can be combined to good effect. If a part has a predominantly round shape but also requires asymmetrical cuts or features, CNC milling can follow CNC turning in sequence. And although it is less common, CNC turning can also follow CNC milling — if a boxy or irregular-shaped part requires a large hole bored through its center, for example.

    Finally, sometimes you don’t have to choose: CNC milling-turning centers integrate both technologies into a single production device.

    What is a CNC Milling Machine and how does it work? How do CNC milling machines compare to CNC Lathes? When do you need such a CNC machine tool?

    Focused on milling – the process of machining using rotating tools to gradually remove material from a workpiece – CNC milling machines are a mainstay for factories around the world. These machine tools make use of a variety of cutting tools along one or more axes to remove material from a workpiece through mechanical means.

    CNC milling machines are often used in a variety of manufacturing industries: from industries like aerospace, shipping, automobiles, and oil drilling / pumping and refining, to medical, FMC manufacturing, and precision engineering sectors.

    Also called CNC Machining Centers, the more advanced CNC milling machines can operate along multiple-axis. These may be fitted with automatic tool changers, advanced machine coolant systems, pallet changers, and advanced software to improve the efficiency and accuracy of machining processes.

    CNC Milling Machines are machine operated cutting tools that are programmed and managed by Computer Numerical Control (CNC) systems to accurately remove materials from a workpiece. The end result of the machining process is a specific part or product that is created using a Computer Aided Design (CAD) software.

    These machine tools are normally equipped with a main spindle and three-linear-axes to position or move the part to be machined. More advanced versions may have a 4th or 5th rotational axis to allow for more precise shapes of varying dimensions and sizes to be machined.

    CNC milling machines / machining centers normally employ a process of material cutting termed milling or machining – the milling process involves securing a piece of pre-shaped material (also known as the workpiece) to a fixture attached to a platform in the milling machine. A rapidly rotating tool (or a series of interchangeable tools) is then applied to the material to remove small chips of the material until the desired shape for the part is achieved.

    Depending on the material used for the part, as well as the complexity of the machined part, varying axes, cutting head speeds, and feed rates may be applied.

    Milling is normally used to machine parts that are not symmetrical from an axial perspective. These parts may have unique curvatures or surface contours, which may require a combination of drilling & tapping, grooves, slots, recesses, pockets and holes to work on them. They may also form parts of the tooling for other manufacturing processes – for example in the fabrication of 3D moulds.

    In the past, milling machines were manually operated. Operators had to use a combination of machines with different tools to machine a more complex part or product. Or they had to use various settings on one machine just to complete the job. 

    With the advancement of technology such a CNC controls and Automatic Tool Changers (ATCs), greater efficiency, flexibility and speed can be achieved – even for more convoluted parts. The provision of digital readouts and measuring systems has also improved the accuracy of CNC machining processes. 

    To cater to manufacturers that require the flexibility of “High Mix, Low Volume” (HMLV) or “small batch” production, CNC machining centers can be fitted with Pallet Changers or other automation solutions to form part of a Flexible Manufacturing Cell (FMC) or Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). This allows such machines to cater to a wide variety of machining demands and needs.

    The general principle for a CNC milling machine or CNC machining center is that the part to be machined is clamped on top of the machine table. It could be clamped directly on the table itself, or held in place by a vice or fixture.

    The spindle (moving section) including the cutting tool is then either vertically or horizontally positioned. In that configuration, the tool can reach various X-Y-Z positions on the work piece and commence cutting and shaping actions. As it does so, the work piece or part may either be fixed, mounted, or moved/positioned by the table in a linear direction to the spindle with the cutting tool. This allows material to be removed according to the desired shape needed for the machined part.

    For a CNC milling machine (aka CNC machining center), the work piece is fixed or mounted in position using a vice or fixture while the cutting tool is manoeuvred on top of or around the piece. Material is then gradually removed using cutting tools or drills which rotate at high speed with varying feed rates along two or more axes. 

    In the case of a CNC Lathe (aka CNC Turning Center), however, the work piece (usually cylindrical) is mounted on a rotating chuck or on the main spindle. It is then “turned” (hence the name turning Center) or rotated along a main axis while the cutting tool located in a rotational or positioning turret would move in a parallel direction to the piece. Material is then removed using stationery cutting tools.


    Thus, a CNC milling machine use a spinning tool with a stationery work piece, whereas a CNC Lathe would involve spinning the material to be worked on by a stationery cutting tool.


  What are lenticular images, and why do they look so awesome?
Geschrieben von: ptipeias - 26.10.2021, 05:55 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

What are lenticular images, and why do they look so awesome?

    Every day, there are hundreds—perhaps even thousands—of advertising messages knocking on your head trying to gain access to the part of your brain that decides to buy things. With so much money at stake, it's hardly surprising that advertisers go to such extraordinary lengths to catch our attention. The only trouble is, our brains habituate: they quickly get used to seeing the same thing over and over again. So the advertisers have to keep thinking of new tricks to stay one step ahead. One of their latest ideas is to print posters, magazines, and book covers with lenticulars—images that seem to change as you move your head. Let's take a closer look at how they work!

    Nothing! Lentils are tiny orange, green, or brown pulses popular with vegetarians and—no—they have nothing to do with how book covers work. The connection between "lentil" and "lenticular" is simply a matter of words. Lenticulars are so-called because they use lenses, which are pieces of plastic or glass that bend (or "refract&quotWink light to make things look bigger or smaller. Lenses got their name because some of them just happen to look a bit like lentils! You can find more in our main article on lenses (we even tell you how to make a lens of your own, in about 5 seconds flat, from a drop of water).

    How do you make something like our book cover up above? You take your two different images and load them into a computer graphics program. The program cuts each image into dozens of thin strips and weaves them together so the strips from the first image alternate with the strips from the second. This process is called interlacing. If you look at the doubled-up image printed this way, it's just a horribly confusing mess, but not for long! Next, you place a transparent plastic layer on top of the doubled-up image. This is made of dozens of separate thin, hemi-spherical lenses called lenticles. These refract (bend) the light passing through them so, whichever side you're looking from, you see only half the printed strips. Move your head back and forth and the image flips back and forth too like a kind of "visual see-saw".

    For all this to work properly, everything has to be printed with incredible precision. The lenticles have to be exactly the same size as the printed strips underneath them and lined up with them exactly. Not only that, the image has to be adjusted and printed so that it looks exactly right when viewed through a certain piece of lenticular poster(with a certain "pitch"—or number of lenticles per inch) at a certain viewing distance. (That's a fiddly technical process and I won't go into the details here, but you can find out more in the articles and videos in the further reading section below.)

    Nothing says lenticulars have to flip back and forth between just two images: some have as many as 20 different images or "frames" (as they're sometimes called, using the language of moviemaking). You could have half a dozen different images designed to point in slightly different directions, so an advertising poster slowly and subtly changes its message as you walk past! You can also use lenticulars to create amazing 3D images similar to holograms.

    For a basic flip image that changes as you move your head, you need to arrange the lenticles so both eyes always see the same image; as you move your head, both eyes then switch simultaneously to the other image. Adding more images, it's possible to create a basic illusion of movement (a bit like a flip book) and a zooming effect, so the image appears to get closer or further away as you move the flip lenticular poster back and forth. With a slightly different arrangement of lenticles, arranged vertically, we can send one image to one eye and the alternate interleaved image to the other, giving the illusion of a three-dimensional picture.

    Lenticular images are the neato transforming pictures that often came on trading cards in the 1980s and 90s. They were handy for freaking out young children or filing your nails. Turn them one way and they show one picture. Turn them another and they show another. How? A trick of the light. And plastics.

    Lenticular images are the kind of things they used to give out as free promotional material. They were best suited to things like trading cards of Transformers, because when looked at from one position, the card would display an image of the untransformed robot, while from another angle, it would display the image of whatever it transformed into. (On the back could be a description of why transformers transformed into cars with passenger compartments even when there weren't people to be passengers on their world.) The cards were covered with a piece of ridged plastic.

    The images take advantage of light's tendency to bend, and only bend a certain amount. The ridges of plastic essentially 'block' parts of the image from the viewer. Light from certain parts of the image is reflected or bent away from the viewer. Each ridge, across the page, directs certain slices of the image back to the viewer. As the viewer moves, they are exposed to different parts of the ridges and see different slices of the page.

    The image underneath the ridges is a series of interlaced slices - a little like a colored bar code. Each slice matches up with a section of ridge, and the slices come together to make the full image. Early lenticular images generally only had two pictures and flipped back and forth. More modern ones will be a little more complicated, with many different images, each corresponding to a different segment on the ridge. Some will even present a 3D picture, by showing slightly different image slices to each eye. For example the right eye could see one angle of a face, and the left eye could see another. This is how the eyes regularly build 3D images in the mind, and so the two images combine into a 3D picture. All it takes it the right kind of sectioning, and, of course, plastic.

    This dialogue by Shakespeare very likely refers to 5D lenticular pictures — those accordion-pleated creations that show different images when you look at them from the left or right. In Shakespeare’s time and in the 20th century, lenticulars were manufactured as amusing distractions. Today, the technique is finding a home in fine art — including this month at The Art League.

    One of the first examples of a lenticular picture still in existence is the Double Portrait of King Frederik IV and Queen Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstow of Denmark by Gaspar Antoine de Bois-Clair, signed 1692.

    As you can see in the photo, this type of 3D lenticular picture uses a corrugated structure to achieve the effect. Look at it from the left, you see the king; from the right, the queen; and if you look at it straight ahead, you get a mish-mash of both.

    Starting in the 1950s, companies like Vari-Vue were able to mass-produce lenticular images through lenticular printing — a novelty you’re probably familiar with from Cracker Jack boxes and baseball cards:

    These flickering images are the result of the same principle but a different process: the images are behind a small, ribbed plastic lens that shifts what’s in focus.

    Lenticulars as fine art

    Artists such as Roy Lichtenstein and especially Yaacov Agam have used lenticular design in their artwork.

    Photographer Sally Canzoneri began creating lenticular prints for a specific exhibit proposal: it was to be displayed in NoMa, a DC neighborhood that was undergoing a lot of change. While considering how best to show that change, Canzoneri happened to see this tutorial on creating lenticular images.

    It was a match.

    “I’ve found that people get drawn into them in a way they don’t get drawn into my flat pictures,” Canzoneri said. The way viewers engage with the content “comes — at least in part — from the fact that the viewing experience is broken up and blended in an unusual way.”

    It can also lead to happy accidents. In the print seen in the video at the top of this post, women’s marches from 1913 and 2017 intersect. Because of the way the images overlap, when viewing the black-and-white image, you can see a slight pink glow above the 1913 marchers’ heads.


    How it works

    Canzoneri’s prints use the old-fashioned accordion style, not the plastic lens. It’s a more hands-on endeavor, and one that took some experimenting to refine.

    It starts, of course, with two images. Using Photoshop, Canzoneri stitches together strips from each image, for a final product that looks like this when printed:Then, using a carpenter’s square, she carefully folds it into the accordion shape. After a few tries, Canzoneri found the right type of paper to use and the correct fold depth (about an inch).

    Double Takes

    Which brings us to “Double Takes” — Canzoneri’s exhibit of lenticular photographs on view now at The Art League. You can catch these images through February 4, 2018.

    Bring your walking shoes — the better to interact with the artwork. And, Canzoneri says, she hopes the photos encourage viewers to “go outside and look around with fresh eyes.”

    Have you ever walked past an exhibit graphic that seemed to move? Or maybe the image suddenly shifted? Your eyes weren’t playing tricks on you … the graphic was playing a trick on your eyes.

    These types of graphics are known as lenticular prints.

    What Are Lenticular Prints?

    Today’s lenticulars aren’t the moving image stickers you used to get at the doctor’s office as a kid (or adult—no judgment here). You know the ones: if you swiveled it a bit it looked like She-Ra was raising her sword, or a transformer was … transforming. Well now that same concept makes things that do this:One of the advantages of lenticulars is that visitors can get a nice pop of 3D or animation without needing any additional equipment. As cool as everyone looks wearing those 3D glasses, it’s a bit of waste to supply those for one panel. Lenticular prints simulate motion and/or dimension using specially fabricated two-dimensional prints.

    HOW DO THE 2D PRINTS MAKE IT LOOK 3D?

    It’s called stereoscopy. It’s a visual effect created by providing slightly offset views to both of your eyes at the same time. When your brain mushes (technical term) the two visuals together, you see the combined image with additional depth and volume. In other words, your brain takes Image 1 and Image 2 and turns into a much more awesome optical illusion. To do that, the designer has to interlace the images.

    One of the advantages of lenticulars is that visitors can get a nice pop of 3D or animation without needing any additional equipment. As cool as everyone looks wearing those 3D glasses, it’s a bit of waste to supply those for one panel. Lenticular prints simulate motion and/or dimension using specially fabricated two-dimensional prints.

    HOW DO THE 2D PRINTS MAKE IT LOOK 3D?

    It’s called stereoscopy. It’s a visual effect created by providing slightly offset views to both of your eyes at the same time. When your brain mushes (technical term) the two visuals together, you see the combined image with additional depth and volume. In other words, your brain takes Image 1 and Image 2 and turns into a much more awesome optical illusion. To do that, the designer has to interlace the images.

    Other than they’re really fun? Lenticular prints add impact to displays of static photographs and other images. They can also create a depth of content. By layering images on top of each other, a lenticular can show a before and after, or a variety of images on a theme in a way that shows shifts. Recently, Smithsonian Libraries worked with SIE to create lenticular prints for their exhibition Magnificent Obsessions: Why We Collect. Visitors could see the image of a prized possession, and then it would shift, showing the collector. Visitors can see a visual connection between the two images, and figure out that the stories behind those two images are intertwined.


Smile NON-Fungible Token Development Platform
Geschrieben von: nftdeveloper - 25.10.2021, 11:37 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

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  Starter Motor
Geschrieben von: dowseias - 25.10.2021, 03:29 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

Starter Motor

    Motor starters are usually fitted with a trip device which deals with overcurrents from just above normal running current of the motor to the stall current. The aim should be for the device to match the characteristics of the motor so that full advantage may be taken of any overload capacity. Equally, the trip device must open the starter contactor before there is any danger of permanent damage to the motor.

    Contactors are not normally designed to cope with the clearance of short-circuit conditions, and it is therefore usual for the contactor to be backed up by HRC fuses or by circuit-breaker.

    The arrival on the scene of very compact motor starters and the need to provide proper back-up protection to them has posed a problem. BS EN 60947-4-1 (1992) (previously BS 4941) ‘Motor starters’, describes three types of co-ordination, the most onerous condition (type C) requiring that under fault conditions there shall be no damage to the starter or to the overload relay. The usual back-up device will be the HRC fuse. It is important that the user check with the manufacturer's catalogue to ensure that the correct fuse is used to secure this co-ordination.

    The starter motor in your automobile is a DC motor. If you were to accidentally reverse the battery polarity, the DC motor would still rotate in the same direction. Reversing polarity of the battery will not cause the motor to rotate in the opposite direction.

    To reverse the direction of rotation of this type of motor, either the current through the stator winding or the current through the armature must be reversed. Reversing both of them will result in the same magnetic polarities between the armature and the stator poles. This results in the same direction of rotation.

    The industry's standard for reversing the direction of rotation of a DC motor is to reverse the direction of the current through the armature. When a DC motor has more than one set of windings, shunt and series, as well as interpoles, the currents through all the stator windings would need to be reversed in order to change direction of rotation. This is far more complicated than merely reversing armature current.

    All engines require a toyota starter motor to turn them over before firing. In conventional vehicles, this is a straightforward, but powerful, direct-current electric motor. When the starter switch is activated by the driver, current flows to a solenoid attached to the starter motor. This current moves a lever into the solenoid that then causes a cogwheel of the motor to mesh with the teeth on the circumference of the flywheel. At the same time, an electrical contact is closed to allow a large current to flow and rotate the starter motor as well as the engaged flywheel. Typically, currents of hundreds of amperes are required to start the engine and are provided by the battery, which is generally a 12-V lead–acid module. The battery is recharged by the alternator–rectifier combination when the engine is running. Automotive batteries have improved enormously over the years and have far longer lives than formerly, even though they may be called upon to power many more functions. Although guarantees may be for two or three years, in practice batteries often operate for eight years or longer before failing. Moreover, modern car batteries no longer require periodic ‘topping-up’ with de-ionized water. Further information on the evolution of the lead–acid battery is given in Section 7.4, Chapter 7.

    A starter motor is required to run the internal combustion engine up to a speed sufficient to produce satisfactory carburation.

    The starter motor is mounted on the engine casing and a pinion on the end of the BMW starter motor shaft engages with the flywheel teeth. The gear ratio between pinion and flywheel is about 10:1. A machine capable of developing its maximum torque at zero speed is required. The series wound motor has speed and torque characteristics ideal for this purpose.

    The engagement of the pinion with the flywheel is effected in different ways. Perhaps the two most commonly used are the inertia engaged pinion and the pre-engaged pinion methods.

    In inertia engagement the drive pinion is mounted freely on a helically threaded sleeve on the armature motor shaft. When the starter switch is operated, the armature shaft revolves, causing the pinion, owing to its inertia, to revolve more slowly than the shaft. Consequently, the pinion is propelled along the shaft by the thread into mesh with the flywheel ring gear. Torque is then transmitted from the shaft to the sleeve and pinion through a heavy torsion spring, which takes up the initial shock of engagement. As soon as the engine fires, the load on the pinion teeth is reversed and the pinion tends to be thrown out of engagement. Inertia drives are usually inboard, i.e. the pinion moves inward towards the starter motor to engage with the ring gear; an inboard is lighter and cheaper than an outboard starter.

    To obtain maximum lock torque (i.e. turning effort at zero speed), the flux and armature current must be at a maximum, so resistance in the starter circuit (windings, cables, switch and all connections) must be a minimum; any additional resistance will reduce the starting torque. Generally, the inertia engaged mercedes starter motor is energised via a solenoid switch, permitting the use of a shorter starter cable and assuring firm closing of the main starter-switch contacts, with consequent reduction in voltage drop. The use of graphite brushes with a high metallic content also assists in minimising loss of voltage.

    While inertia drive has been the most popular method of pinion engagement for British petrol-engined vehicles, the use of outboard pre-engaged drive is increasing. The pre-engaged starter is essential on all vehicles exported to cold climates and for compression ignition engines which need a prolonged starting period.

    The simplest pre-engaged type of drive is the overrunning clutch type. In this drive, the pinion is pushed into mesh by a forked lever when the starter switch is operated, the lever often being operated by the plunger of a solenoid switch mounted on the motor casing. Motor current is automatically switched on after a set distance of lever movement. The pinion is retained in mesh until the starter switch is released, when a spring returns it. To overcome edge-to-edge tooth contact and ensure meshing, spring pressure or a rotating motion is applied to the pinion. An overrunning clutch carried by the pinion prevents the motor armature from being driven by the flywheel after the engine has fired. Various refinements may be incorporated, especially in heavy-duty starters. Among these are: a slip device in the overrunning clutch to protect the motor against overload; a solenoid switch carrying a series closing coil and a shunt hold-on coil; an armature braking or other device to reduce the possibility of re-engagement while the armature and drive are still rotating; a two-stage solenoid switch to ensure full engagement of the starter pinion into the flywheel teeth before maximum torque is developed (Figure 44.15).

    The engine may be started either by an electric honda starter motor or by compressed air.&nbsp;

    An increasing used form of motor starter is known as “soft start”. Soft starters utilise sold state technology, typically thyristors, to supply the motor.

    In a “soft starter” voltage and frequency of supply to the motor is varied in a controlled way in order to provide the required torque as the speed increases up to full load.

    Soft starts can be arranged to provide up to 200% full load torque at starting, whilst limiting the current drawn from the supply to perhaps 350% rather than the 600% typically experienced from direct on line. Other parameters and facilities including kick start ability, ramp time to full speed and low load energy saving are available depending upon supplier.

    Soft starters are available for the largest 400/600 volt motors. By specifying soft starters the specification of the associated supply system can be relaxed since large starting currents and resultant voltage drops will not occur.

    Some users are specifying speed control inverters for motor starting even when full speed control facilities are not needed. So used inverters provide a soft starter capability, have good motor control, protection and diagnostic facilities as well as providing an energy saving function, if needed.

    The engine starting quality is strongly influenced by the Jeep starter motor and the injection strategy. Indeed, an insufficient amount of kinetic energy initially provided to the system will not compensate for the energy loss caused by the DMF resonance. An adequate starter motor must be carefully chosen to fulfil this requirement, even under critical conditions with low battery voltage or corroded components of the starter system. Moreover, the engine should not be fired too soon during the starting phase before the starter motor reaches a stationary speed.


  5 of the best yoga pants: Health benefits and risks
Geschrieben von: dowseias - 25.10.2021, 03:27 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

5 of the best yoga pants: Health benefits and risks

    Wearing yoga suit while exercising may make a workout more comfortable and therefore more enjoyable. It may also prevent overheating. That said, it also carries some health risks.

    This article discusses the health benefits and risks of wearing yoga pants, what to look for, some of the best options available to buy online, and alternative gym clothing to consider.

    Yoga pants describe a variety of different styles of pants, from formfitting leggings to looser trousers. However, nearly all yoga pants have some stretch to them due to the materials that they contain.

    Many yoga pants contain materials that wick moisture from the body and promote airflow. The moisture-wicking technology prevents overheating by keeping body temperature stable during exercise, while ventilating fabrics increase airflow.

    A 2014 studyTrusted Source found that synthetic polyester was more beneficial than a 100% cotton T-shirt in terms of both breathability and moisture-wicking.

    This may suggest that yoga suit-summer made of synthetic material, such as polyester and elastane, may prevent overheating and promote airflow. This in turn may make workouts more comfortable, especially in warm or hot environments.

    Health risks of wearing yoga pants

    The stretchy material in yoga pants should not feel too tight or limit movement, as restrictive clothes can contribute toward musculoskeletal disorders.

    For example, a 2016 studyTrusted Source found that males wearing tight pants are at a greater risk of musculoskeletal disorders, because they cause abnormal movement and posture in the lumbar spine and pelvis.

    While this study focused on males and restrictive clothing, especially around the waist, it suggests that wearing flexible and comfortable clothing may decrease the risk of abnormal movement and posture.

    Wearing tight or formfitting yoga pants may also lead to other conditions:

    Yeast infection

    Some people may develop a vaginal yeast infection. Certain clothes, such asTrusted Source those that are too tight or use synthetic materials, are factors in people developing this infection.

    Tight clothes and sweating allow the yeast that naturally occurs in the vagina to thrive, which leads to inflammation.

    Learn more about yeast infections here.

    Tinea cruris

    Another condition that people may develop while wearing yoga suit-autumn is tinea cruris, or jock itch. Excessive sweating, restrictive clothing, and not showering properly after exercise are risk factorsTrusted Source for developing this condition.

    People wearing tight yoga pants that do not have moisture-wicking or breathable fabrics may be at risk of jock itch.

    Learn more about jock itch risk factors and prevention here.

    Intertrigo

    People wearing yoga pants may also develop intertrigo. This condition is an inflammation that appears in skin folds. Risk factors for intertrigo includeTrusted Source warm temperatures, sweating, friction, and poor ventilation.

    Wearing yoga pants that do not have breathable and moisture-wicking materials may contribute to this condition.

    Learn more about intertrigo here.

    List of top yoga pants

    There are many yoga pants available to buy. However, people should look for yoga suit-pattern that are:

    nonrestrictive

    breathable

    moisture wicking

    Below, we present a selection of the top yoga pants available on the market.

    Please note that the writer of this article has not tried these products. All information presented is purely research-based.

    These leggings contain moderate compression fabric that flattens the stomach and shapes the waist and legs. Shaper clothing does not offer fitness benefits.

    The leggings also feature mesh cutouts around the knees that promote extra airflow and breathability. The fabric in the leggings wicks moisture, preventing overheating.

    The company recommend these leggings for people doing high impact exercise, such as agility, strength, and resistance training.

    These leggings are available in small, medium, large, and extra-large sizes.

    These pants are lightweight, moisture wicking, and quick drying. They do not contain spandex, but they prevent sagging or bagging with FREEFLEX fabric.

    They also feature a wide pull-on waistband, four pockets, and a gusseted crotch for freedom of movement. Additionally, they have a water-repellent finish.

    The company recommend these pants for people who work out in the gym and outdoors.

    These pants are available in small, medium, large, extra-large, and double extra-large sizes, with a variety of inseam options.

    These polyester and lycra pants have a capri length and an over-the-belly waistband that a person can wear up or fold down, depending on their needs. These leggings feature a four-way stretch and UV protection. They also absorb moisture.

    The company recommend these for both a workout and general use. Additionally, the leggings are suitable throughout pregnancy.

    They come in the following sizes: extra-small, small, medium, large, and extra-large.

    Whether you’re working out or just working from home, yoga pants are probably somewhere in your day-to-day wardrobe rotation. To help you find the right pair for your preferences — whether you like high-waisted or fold-over or capris or boot cut — we’ve scoured thousands of Amazon reviews for the best of the best. And if you’re looking for more activewear, be sure to check out our roundups of the best sports bras, leggings, and plus-size workout clothes.

    More than 31,000 reviewers give these high-waisted yoga tops-vest five stars, and over 300 describe them as “buttery soft.” One such reviewer writes, “I cannot express how much I LOVE these leggings! They make the booty look good, and I honestly like them better than my Lululemon Aligns. And at this price, they’re hard to beat.” Another self-proclaimed “avid gymgoer” also prefers these over Lululemon’s leggings because they “don’t cost $100/pair, have good pockets, give enough compression for belly support, are super-stretchy and comfortable, and they stay put.” Plenty of reviewers appreciate the 7/8 length of these slightly shorter leggings, including one reviewer who’s under five feet tall. “The fit is perfect for my small, hard-to-shop-for body!” they write. “It can be hard to find leggings with little to no slack on the legs, but these fit just right, no bunched-up fabric at my ankles!”

    Over 3,000 reviewers give these even less expensive yoga pants five stars, with many describing them as lightweight enough to workout in. “I was looking for cool, light material because I use these pants for running on an indoor track. They are perfect,” one writes, while another says, “I have hiked in them a couple times now and found them to feel comfortable, and yet very supportive on my legs.” And while they are breathable, one assures, “They’re not see-through like a lot of leggings can be; so wearing them at the gym is totally fine.” As far as the length goes, some reviewers say they are a little long, but one five-foot-one-inch reviewer says, “Once I put on a sneaker they are just above the ground.” Reviewers also appreciate that they’re affordable — and that that doesn’t impact their quality. “I had them for 2.5 years and they still look like new,” one owner says. “I wear them weekly. Amazing quality. No stretch, no holes, no sign of wear. Just amazing.”

    According to the majority of positive reviewers here, Baleaf High Waist yoga pants don’t press, squeeze, pinch, or leave indents on your stomach, and they stay put. “The high waist stays up through all kinds of movement,” said one reviewer. Another satisfied customer who wears them for work and yoga said, “I love that they don’t slide down, flatten out my waist without leaving indents in my stomach or putting too much pressure like most high-waisted pairs do.” A woman who said she wears them running called them “perfect workout pants” saying “they fit wonderfully, and they’re so comfortable I don’t even feel like I’m wearing pants (wore them for my run tonight). The waistband comes up high enough to cover what I want covered without squeezing the hell out of my belly. Super breathable, moisture-wicking, not see-through!” And a reviewer who bought another pair “immediately” after receiving the first ones said “the fit on these pants are amazing! They hold everything in yet still manage to feel breathable and so comfortable! They’ll make your booty look great also!”

    “I’ve been searching for a LONG time on Amazon for the perfect leggings,” writes one customer who wanted Lululemon quality “without spending a lot of money.” She tested many different Amazon leggings before these, and says “these by far are the most comfortable to work out in. They def pass the squat test, are not see-through at ALL, and have convenient pockets that I didn’t think I needed but love.” And plenty of five-star reviewers mention the pockets on these IUGA leggings. One calls them “great, deep pockets.” She says that women should “DEMAND more and better pockets” because after all “pockets are not just for men.” Another customer says these leggings “are everything.” She appreciates the pockets because they’re large enough for her utility knife and keys, but like nearly 200 other five-star reviewers, she loves the high waist. “The high waist allows me to look slimmer and feel better about myself which ironically makes me work harder and faster,” she explains, adding, “I can bend and squat and kneel and lift easily with no restrictions or material pulling in certain places and not in others.”

    “So take it from me and get one of these pants, if not multiple, because they will change your life,” writes one reviewer who thinks these leggings are top-quality. Many are especially impressed with the mesh panel on the calves; one notes that it “is very flattering” and “slimming,” while another adds that “the mesh panels gives better cooling effect.” But the mesh isn’t the only draw: As one reviewer notes, “The bottom of the legs is cut on a slight angle (which doesn’t show in the image), but it adds to the styling along with some the diagonal seaming, which is the inverse of the mesh insert. There’s also mesh trim on the pocket, a nice detail.” The fit is another selling point. Reviewers describe the leggings as stretchy and comfortable, but thick enough to be supportive. “They keep my ‘jiggles’ controlled for yoga, barre, and boxing workouts (told you … GOALS!),” one says. “The high waisted ‘tummy tuck’ also stays put during all my activities, no rolling down! And finally, the material is dense, no awkward ‘see-through’ spots on the bum.”


  Yoga Equipment Guide for Beginners
Geschrieben von: dowseias - 25.10.2021, 03:25 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

Yoga Equipment Guide for Beginners

    When you first start doing yoga, it's hard to know what you really need to buy. The yoga mat continues to develop so much clothing and equipment that you might feel you need to spend hundreds of dollars before ever stepping foot in a studio.

    The good news is, you actually need very little to get started. That said, if you're starting a home practice, or you'd feel better purchasing yoga-specific apparel and equipment prior to your first class, here's what you need to know.

    It should go without saying that most aerial yoga accessories want you to wear something to class, but you don't need scores of printed yoga pants or designer gear to be accepted by your peers. Start with the comfortable, breathable athletic apparel you already have on hand, and purchase mid-level basics for anything you're missing.&nbsp;

    Pants or Shorts: You can't go wrong with a few pairs of solid-color yoga pants in black, dark grey, navy, or brown. You can mix-and-match these tights with a wide variety of tops, and if you purchase high-quality options, they can last a long time.

    If tight pants aren't your thing, look for jogger-style pants or the popular harem-style pants that have elastic around the ankles. These pants are stretchy and offer a little extra room, but due to the ankle elastic, they'll stay in place throughout your practice.

    Shorts are a popular option for guys, and they're also appropriate for women, especially if you plan to try hot yoga. Just keep in mind, you may want to wear form-fitting spandex shorts or looser shorts with connected tights underneath because some poses require you to position your legs in a way that could leave you uncomfortably uncovered with looser, running-style shorts.&nbsp;

    Tops: It's important to wear tops that are fairly form-fitting so your shirt doesn't fly over your head during forward bends. Wicking material is helpful, especially if you tend to sweat a lot or if you plan on attending a hot yoga class.

    Because yoga rooms are sometimes kept cool, you may want to bring a light cover up or sweater with you to class. You can wear it until class starts, and if you keep it by your mat, you can put it on before the final savasana.

    Sports Bras: If you're a woman, make sure you wear a sports bra. While TPE yoga mat tends to be a low-impact activity, a decent sports bra can help keep your &quot;girls&quot; in place as you transition between poses, making your practice more comfortable.

    Hair Ties or Headbands: Whether you're a man or woman, if you have long hair, you need to secure it in place before you start class to prevent stray locks from falling in your eyes and face. A basic hair tie or headband should do the trick.

    Yoga Socks: To be clear, yoga socks are not a requirement to attend a class. In fact, it's preferable to do yoga barefoot. That said if you can't fathom the thought of taking your socks and shoes off in front of strangers, invest in a pair of yoga socks with grips on the bottom so you can keep your feet covered while maintaining good traction. Standard socks absolutely won't do, as you'll end up slipping and sliding all over your mat.

    These days, you can buy yoga apparel practically anywhere, and it's not unusual to see yoga pants priced at over $100. Don't feel you need to lay out that much cash for a single pair of pants! Target, Amazon, and YogaOutlet offer quality options for well under $50. Buy a couple pairs of pants and a few tops, and you'll be set for months.

    As you commit yourself to your practice, you may decide to add trendy prints or styles to your wardrobe.

    In gyms and yoga studios, it’s commonplace to use a yoga mat, also called a sticky mat. The mat helps define your personal space, and, more importantly, it creates traction for your hands and feet so you don’t slip, especially as you get a little sweaty. The mat also provides a bit of cushioning on a hard floor.

    Most gyms provide mats and studios have them for rent, usually for a dollar or two per class. This is fine for your first few classes, but the disadvantage to these mats is that lots of people use them and you can't be sure how often they're being cleaned, so you may consider buying your own.

    Premium yoga mats can be expensive, often around $80 to $120, but it's possible to find a starter mat for as little as $20 from retailers like Target and Amazon. Just keep in mind, if you decide to buy a cheaper mat, you'll probably find yourself replacing it in short order if you use it often. If you're really ready to commit to a yoga practice, your mat is one place it's worth it to lay out some cash.

    Decide which mat features are important to you—for instance, length, thickness, material, durability, comfort, traction, or how to keep it clean—then buy a mat with good reviews based on your needs. Manduka and Lululemon are known for the quality of their Pro Mat and The Reversible Mat, respectively, but other brands, including Jade and Yellow Willow, also offer high-quality, durable mats with good traction and support.

    Yoga props are a boon to a fledgling suede yoga mat practice. Props allow students to maintain the healthiest alignment in a range of poses as the body bends, twists, and opens up. They also help you get the most out of each pose while avoiding injury.1

    You should familiarize yourself with the props described below, but you don't need to buy your own (unless you're starting a home practice) because they are almost always provided by studios and gyms.&nbsp;

    Mat Bags or Slings

    If you own your own yoga mat, and you're going to be lugging it back and forth to the studio on a regular basis, there's a legitimate case to be made for purchasing a mat bag or sling. These accessories do exactly what they suggest—they make it easy for you to sling your rolled mat over your shoulder without it coming unrolled.

    Slings usually use velcro straps to bind your mat in its rolled configuration with a connecting strap you can throw over your shoulder. Slings sometimes offer additional pockets for storage, but not always. Bags, on the other hand, typically come in one of two styles. One version uses velcro straps to keep your rolled mat secure against a larger gym bag. The other version is essentially a snap- or zipper-closure bag specifically designed to hold your rolled mat. Both styles provide extra storage for clothing, wallets, cell phones, and the like.

    The style and brand you choose really comes down to personal preference and budget, as slings can cost as little as $10, and heavy-duty bags can cost well over $100. For variety, check out YogaOutlet, where you can find an array of brands at reasonable prices.

    Blankets

    Yoga studios usually have stacks of blankets available for students to use during class. Grab one or two blankets at the beginning of class.

    Folded blankets can be used to lift the hips during seated poses, or to offer support during lying poses. For instance, when you sit cross-legged, you can place a blanket under your sit bones to elevate the hips above your knees. Blankets come in handy for all sorts of things during class, and if it’s chilly, you can use them to cover up during the final relaxation.

    For a home practice, there's truly no reason to purchase new blankets. Simply use what you already have on hand around the house. If, however, you don't own any extra blankets, YogaOutlet offers them for as little as $13.

    Blocks

    Like blankets, yoga blocks are used to make you more comfortable and improve your alignment. Blocks are particularly useful for standing poses in which your hands are supposed to be on the floor.

    Placing a block under your hand has the effect of &quot;raising the floor&quot; to meet your hand rather than forcing the hand to come to the floor while effectively compromising some other part of the pose. This can be seen in half moon pose. Many people don't have the hamstring flexibility or core strength to hold the position with proper form.

    By placing a block under the hand that's reaching toward the floor, it's easier to keep the chest open and torso strong. Without the block, the chest might be inclined to turn toward the floor, the supporting knee might be inclined to bend, and the torso might be inclined to &quot;collapse.&quot; The simple use of the block helps maintain proper alignment.

    Yoga blocks are made of foam, wood, or cork. They can be turned to stand at three different heights, making them very adaptable. If you plan to do a lot of swivel at home it's worth it to get a set of blocks (helpful for poses where both hands are reaching toward the ground). If you're going to attend classes, blocks will be provided for you.

    The good news is, almost any block is sufficient, so this is an area you don't have to worry too much about scrimping on. But slightly wider blocks—those that are at least four-inches wide—provide better stability. YogaOutlet and Amazon offer several sizes and styles for under $10 each. If you're willing to pay a little more, Yoga Hustle offers some fun options for $24 a pop.

    Straps

    Yoga straps, also called belts, are particularly useful for poses where you need to hold onto your feet but cannot reach them. The strap basically acts as an arm extender. For instance, in pascimottanasana, if you can't reach your feet with your hands in the seated forward fold, you can wrap the strap around the bottom of your feet and hold onto the strap to maintain a flat back instead of slumping forward.

    Straps are also great for poses where you bind your hands behind the back (marichyasana, for example). If your shoulders don't allow enough flexibility for the bind, you can use a strap to &quot;connect&quot; both hands without excess strain. And with the strap's help, you can move your hands toward each other over time to make progress toward the full bind.

    You probably have something around your house that would work as a strap (like a belt or even a towel) and yoga studios supply them for use during class. That said, if you really want to buy an official version, it's hard to beat the price of YogaOutlet, where you can find straps for under $10.

    Bolsters

    Bolsters have many uses for yoga students. You can use them in place of a stack of blankets to make seated and forward bending poses more comfortable. You can place them under your knees or your back when reclining for support and passive stretching. They are particularly handy in restorative and prenatal yoga classes. If you take this type of class, the bolsters will be provided. If you want to do restorative yoga at home, it may be worth it to invest in your own bolster.

    The are two basic bolster shapes: round and flat (more of a rectangular shape). Flat bolsters tend to be more ergonomic; however, round bolsters can be useful when you want more support or a deeper stretch. It comes down to personal preference.

    If you have the option, use both styles in class before you decide which one best suits your home practice. Amazon is the best place to shop for sheer variety and price, but if you want a pretty bolster, check out Hugger Mugger, Inner Space, or Chattra. The prices are in line with the marketplace ($40 to $80), and the designs are bright and beautiful.

    Wheels

    Yoga wheels are a relatively new prop starting to gain a foothold in the yoga studio. These wheels are roughly 12-inches in diameter and are about four-inches wide. When set upright, you can lie back on the wheel or place a foot or hand on top of the wheel to deepen your stretches and enhance flexibility, slowly rolling the wheel farther as you relax into each stretch. Wheels can also be used in more advanced practices as a way to challenge stability or to offer support during challenging poses.

    While it's unlikely that you'll need a yoga wheel as a beginner, you may want to consider a purchase down the line. Most wheels range in price from $40 to $60. Yoga Design Lab, for instance, offers one for $48.


  Everyone Is Buying Mirrors Right Now
Geschrieben von: dowseias - 25.10.2021, 03:21 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

Everyone Is Buying Mirrors Right Now

    2020 was the year our appearances mattered the least. There were no parties to go to, no fancy dinners, no 500-person weddings. Yet, ironically, wall mirror interest skyrocketed. CB2 reported that mirrors were their most-searched home product, with over 4 million inquiries. 1stDibs saw a double digit increase in mirror searches overall, and a triple digit increase for one in particular: the “Ultrafragola” designed by Ettore Sottsass for Poltronova. (Celebrity owners include Lena Dunham and Bella Hadid.) Meanwhile, New York Design Center says they, too, have “seen an uptick in mirror sales” at their brick-and-mortar outpost, The Gallery at 200 Lex.

    The question is, why? Are we masochists who like to gaze upon our unkempt, sweatpant-clad reflection? Are we so vain that we needed “selfie mirrors” to keep our Instagram content flowing? Turns out, we were buying mirrors not because we wanted to look at something—we bought them because we wanted to look away.

    For so many of us, life was once spent in several other locations besides our residences: the office, the car, a neighborhood restaurant, a family or friend’s place. But the pandemic shut everything down, rendering us homebound. Suddenly, we were, quite literally and constantly, staring at our walls for months on end. And their blankness began to bug us.

    So how to fill them? Art, sure—but art can be intimidating to pick out, and expensive. Mirrors, however, are a simple yet effective way to fill the void. “Mirrors are an accessible and foolproof way to fill in wall space without having to put too much creative energy behind it,” CB2’s product development lead, Andrea Erman, tells Vogue.

    Accordingly, it’s not the plain-framed, rectangular wall mirrors that are trending. Rather, it’s more decorative ones that double as aesthetic accents. “They’re statement pieces,” Erman explains. Emily B. Collins, the director of New York Design Center’s The Gallery at 200 Lex, agrees: “Most people that shop The Gallery at 200 Lex aren’t necessarily looking for round mirror to check their reflection or do their makeup in, but to instead act as an alternative to art.”

    It’s an interesting return to the mirror’s historical purpose—to reflect the sun, rather than human faces. “Many of the mirrors we sell, from carved 18th century rococo examples to Francois Lembo’s mid-century modern mirrors with rich enamel and hammer decoration, were designed primarily to reflect light,” says Collins. “So as consumers and designers alike have focused more on the appearance of home in the past year, we’ve seen an uptick in mirror sales that reflect the trend antique mirrors were originally designed for—to brighten a space.”

    But how do you pick a mirror that meets your room’s needs? Justina Blakeney, lifestyle expert and founder of Jungalow, says that first, you need to figure out its intended functionality. Room feeling too boxy or square? “A floor-length mirror with an arched top can add architectural interest to your space, as it may feel like you’ve added an arched doorway to the room.”

    For the cramped apartment dwellers, here’s what she recommends: “If you’re using a mirror to make a space brighter, hang it opposite a window. If you’re using a mirror to make a room feel larger, think about a large-scale mirror that echoes the shape of the room, hang it at eye-level and watch as your room seems to double in size.”

    And then there’s the problem that plagues so many of us—the too-blank wall: “If your room is lacking in personality and needs a little somethin’ something’, an ornate or highly decorative mirror can add a lot of flair without making your space feel busy,” she says.

    Below, shop a curated selection of our 15 rectangle mirror.

    Designed Specifically for Women

    The Daily Mirror stands alone as the only major national daily newspaper in Britain ever to be designed specifically for women. Launched in that format, in November 1903, it was a resounding failure, and dissuaded others from similar experiments. Even if its experiment as a ‘high class’ journal for ‘ladies’ only lasted a few weeks from its launch,&nbsp; it retained a distinctly ‘feminine’ identity for many years, and it continued to attract a much higher percentage of female readers than any other paper until well into the 1930s. It finally shook off this reputation with its tabloid relaunch in the mid-1930s, but high-profile female columnists, such as Dorothy Dix, Marje Proops, Felicity Green, Anne Robinson and Miriam Stoppard have remained a key part of the paper’s appeal to its audience right up to the present day.

    Targeting a New Audience

    The serious morning newspapers of the Victorian era, such as The Times, had tended to assume that their readership was male, and focused almost entirely on a public sphere dominated by men. The new popular daily papers launched at the turn of the twentieth century, on the other hand, actively sought to maximise their audience, and this meant reaching out in an obvious way to women as well as men. Female readers did not just boost the overall circulation statistics, they also had a special economic importance to the newspaper business. Women were – or were perceived to be – the major spenders of the domestic budget, and hence they became the prime targets for advertisers looking to sell their products. As newspapers came to rely ever more heavily on the revenue from branded advertising, attracting female readers became a financial necessity. In a society in which men and women were still heavily segregated in both work and leisure, editors and journalists were confident that appealing to women meant providing a different sort of content from that aimed at men – the sort of content, in fact, that had fuelled the success of the burgeoning women’s magazine sector throughout the nineteenth century. From the first issue of the Mail, in May 1896, the paper’s owner, newspaper magnate Alfred Harmsworth, asked Mary Howarth, previously a weekly magazine editor, to oversee regular women’s columns providing material on fashion, housewifery and motherhood. Comparisons between the sexes also became a staple of the feature pages, and women – at that time campaigning for the vote and other rights – became more visible in the news columns too. Much, though by no means all, of this content, was ultimately based on conservative gender stereotypes.

    The Daily Mail’s success in reaching out to this relatively untapped female market encouraged Harmsworth to think that there was room for a whole newspaper dedicated to women. Accordingly, he launched the Daily Mirror in November 1903 with an all-female staff under the editorship of Mary Howarth. The Mirror’s first issue declared that the paper would not be ‘a mere bulletin of fashion, but a reflection of women’s interests, women’s thought, women’s work’, covering ‘the daily news of the world’ and ‘literature and art’ as well as the ‘sane and healthy occupations of domestic life’.1 Gendering sections within a newspaper was one thing: gendering the whole paper was another. The mainstream market was not yet ready for a women’s daily newspaper, at least not in this form. The Mirror struggled to find a consistent tone and identity, and seemed caught between being a magazine and a newspaper. As its circulation plummeted, the oval mirror was rescued only when Harmsworth removed the female staff, handed over the editorship to the experienced journalist Hamilton Fyfe, and turned it into an illustrated paper – as which it was a major success, becoming the first daily to rival the readership levels of the Mail. The illustrated Mirror was keen to display the female body: the front page of the first relaunched issue was dominated by a sketch of the Parisian actress Madeleine Carlier, who, tantalisingly, had just won a court case after breaching her contract by refusing to wear an ‘immodest dress’.2 In 1908, the paper claimed that 15,000 women had submitted pictures for its competition to find ‘the most beautiful woman in the world’; each received a certificate of merit.3&nbsp;&nbsp;

    The Mirror experiment encapsulated the different aspects of Harmsworth’s attitudes to women. His faith in the potential of the women’s market led him to take extraordinary risks: he lost around £100,000 supporting the failing Mirror in its early months. At a time when women had barely gained a foothold in the world of journalism, he demonstrated his willingness to place a great deal of responsibility onto an inexperienced female editorial team, while simply by launching a ‘women’s newspaper’ he continued to challenge assumptions about gender and popular publishing. Nor did the failure of the Mirror seem to alter his perceptions about the female audience. ‘While we learnt there was no room in London for a women’s daily paper,’ recalled Kennedy Jones, Harmsworth’s right-hand-man, ‘we also discovered there was room in a daily paper for more letter press that directly appealed to women.’4 Tom Clarke, another experienced colleague, noted that the setback to the Mirror did not undermine Harmsworth’s ‘faith that the future for popular newspapers and magazines depended on a big woman readership’.5&nbsp;&nbsp;

    Gender Stereotypes

    On the other hand, Harmsworth shared many of the conventional gender prejudices and stereotypes of his time. He continued to view women as being largely defined by their roles as wives and mothers, and the ‘women’s material’ for his papers was produced on these terms. When he told staff to find ‘feminine matter’, he assumed that his meaning was self-evident: he wanted domestic articles, fashion tips, and recipes. His forward-thinking with regard to the female market was tempered by what the new Mirror editor Hamilton Fyfe described as ‘an old-fashioned doubt’ as to whether women were ‘really the equals of men’.6 Until the First World War, Harmsworth was sceptical about the need for female suffrage. ‘Sorry to see the outburst of Suffragette pictures again’ he complained to Alexander Kenealy, the editor of the Mirror, in 1912. ‘I thought you had finished with them. Except in an extreme case, print no more of them.’7 It was only when women demonstrated their ability to serve the nation during the war that he changed his mind and became a proponent of women’s suffrage.&nbsp; Women were also thought to be particularly interested in gossip and celebrity news, and Harmsworth was convinced that most were fundamentally aspirational: ‘Nine women out of ten would rather read about an evening dress costing a great deal of money – the sort of dress they will never in their lives have a chance of wearing – than about a simple frock such as they could afford’.8 Editors and journalists firmly believed that women were particularly keen on the vicarious enjoyment that could be obtained by reading about wealthy lifestyles and luxurious goods, and the steady rise of celebrity culture across the century was partly driven by the desire to cater for the female audience.

    These traditional gender stereotypes were even more evident under the proprietorship of Alfred Harmsworth’s brother Harold, Lord Rothermere, between 1914 and 1936. Although the Mirror enthusiastically accepted the enfranchisement of (most) women over 30 in 1918, ten years later Rothermere became preoccupied that the proposed equalisation of the franchise at age 21 would lead to lots of young women voting for the Labour Party, considerably weakening the forces of conservatism. ‘Stop The Flapper Votes Folly - This is Not The Time For Rash Constitutional Innovations’ declared the paper in April 1927, and, like Rothermere’s other paper, the Mail, resisted the proposal until it sailed through the House of Commons the following year.9&nbsp; Rothermere also became sympathetic to the hyper-masculine fascist dictators, Mussolini and Hitler, and in 1934 swung the arched mirror (and the Mail) behind Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists. For all the press attention on the achievements and freedoms of the ‘modern young women’ of the 1920s and 1930s, underlying attitudes to gender remained resilient.