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  Everything You Need To Know About LED Lighting
Geschrieben von: hwoieias - 29.10.2021, 02:14 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

Everything You Need To Know About LED Lighting

    LED lighting is fast becoming the best solution for a wide variety of outdoor lighting applications. The reasons are simple: LEDs are the most energy efficient light on the market by far, they have the longest lifespan (and associated product warranties) by 2-10 times over the nearest competing technology, and they produce a very high quality light with a wide range of characteristics. They are small, steady-state lights which means they don’t present the breaking or recycling issues common with legacy lighting technology. Perhaps the only downside is that they’re not the cheapest light on the market. That said, the price continues to come down and a smart investor will recognize right away that a lifespan that could be an order of magnitude (10 times) longer than a traditional bulb is easily worth the investment. You get what you pay for after all.

    One of the most important facilities for high quality outdoor LED light are outdoor parking lots. Parking lots present three major obstacles for owners, real estate organizations and facility managers. First, your parking lot needs to be well illuminated to present a welcoming and safe atmosphere for tenants and customers. The type and specifications of the lighting used in your parking lot typically sets the tone regarding safety and professionalism for the building at large. We refer to this general characteristic as lighting quality. Second, your parking lot lights need to be as energy efficient as possible because they typically operate from dusk to dawn. Third, maximizing luminaire lifespan is important because hiring labor and/or keeping staff on board to routinely change bulbs can become very costly. Primarily for these three reasons it is important to install the best combination of high efficiency, long lifespan, and high quality when choosing a lighting solution. Indoor LED lamp is the 21st century answer to all three problems.

    Lighting Quality:

    The most noticeable difference between traditional parking lot lights like High Pressure Sodium and modern day LEDs is the color temperature. Notice the incredibly yellow tinge in the “Before” images to the left below. In the same yellow image take a look at the grass. The characteristic green color is almost indistinguishable. Compare that to the same parking lot when it is illuminated by LEDs. The first thing that stands out is all of the green. The trees and grass appear almost exactly like they do during the day. That is a much more welcoming and comforting experience for tenants, customers, and/or employees frequenting the lot.

    Using LED Upgrades for Street Lights

    Switching to LED lighting leads to significant cost reductions and carbon savings for cities and municipalities. When 12 major cities adopted LED street light, they saw energy savings of 50 to 70 percent.

    In New York City, the city decided to replace 250,000 street lights with LED lights. Known as the largest project of this type in the United States, these new lights helped the city save $14 million in maintenance and energy costs between 2015 and 2017.

    By 2025, there are expected to be 350 million street lights around the world. Unlike other efficiency projects, LED lights are easy to implement. If the entire United States used LED bulbs for street lights, the country would save $6 billion.

    The carbon savings would be similar to removing 8.5 million vehicles from American streets. In Los Angeles, the installation of 140,000 LED street lights in 2013 led to energy savings of 80 percent.

    What are Flood Lights?

    LED flood light is great lighting fixtures that emit a broad beam of light. As the name suggests, flood lights are used to flood an area with light. It is the best way to provide an enormous amount of non-natural light to an area.

    LED floodlights are highly energy efficient and have a higher lumen per watt output than any other conventional lighting system. They are used for many purposes and also allow a range of lighting techniques.

    Applications of Flood Lights

    The broad beam of flood lights is used in a number of ways across many objects and areas.

    Why solar lights could offer a solution to the world's poor

        There is an ongoing debate among policy makers, international donors and researchers about how to provide energy access to poor rural areas. For many years, most funding was flowing into large-scale infrastructure projects to expand national electricity grids. However, grid extensions to remote and poor areas are expensive and difficult to maintain. At the same time, concerns about climate change combined with the decline in solar photovoltaic and battery prices have made solar-powered electricity an attractive investment.

        Off-grid energy as key to fight poverty?

        In particular, pico-solar products, such as small portable solar lights, have gained increased policy attention and international funding. Such products have low up-front costs, need little maintenance, and do not pose the management problems typically associated with national grids or even mini-grids. Solar photovoltaic charged products are hence seen as a possible solution to address both energy poverty and energy sustainability in the near future.Solar lanterns could replace kerosene lighting, which is still used by an estimated 500 million households. The emissions of kerosene lights contribute to global warming and to severe indoor air pollution. Moreover, kerosene lamps typically provide low-quality lighting, at around 10 lumens, while for example a standard LED bulb provides around 500 lumens. On the other hand, solar lanterns only provide minimal access to energy: they can’t power radios, TVs, fridges, or other appliances people may aspire to own as they become wealthier.

        Whereas researchers agree that access to grid energy is important for economic growth, there is only scarce empirical evidence of the impact that off-grid energy access has on poverty. That’s why we conducted a policy field experiment in Kenya in collaboration with several policy partners. We analyzed the demand, use and effects of small portable solar lights, combining survey data with sensor data developed by the ETH spin-off Bonsai Systems.

        Poor households spend a lot on little energy

        At the start of our experiment, almost all 1,400 surveyed households used small kerosene (tin) lanterns with an open flame for lighting. A typical household spent 5–10% of its total cash expenditure on energy, mostly used for kerosene. In comparison, European households spend on average around 4% of their total expenditure on energy, but use more than five times more energy. We found a high demand for solar lanterns among poor rural households, but noticed that they responded very strongly to variations in cost. At the current market price of 9 US dollars, 29% households bought a light; if lights were sold at a subsidized price of 4 dollars, the demand more than doubled (69%).
   
    A solar LED light typically replaces one of the households’ kerosene lanterns. As a result, households save around 2% of their overall monthly cash expenditure by spending less on kerosene. We found little evidence that access to better lighting improves children’s performance at school or increases adults’ working time. If only direct economic returns are considered, this would suggest that switching from kerosene to solar lighting might not always be cost-effective. However, this result might change if kerosene prices increase or photovoltaic prices further decrease.

    Highly luminous LED panels from HOFTRONIC

    Do you want to make your business premises more sustainable? Then the HOFTRONIC LED panels from INTOLED are the solution you are looking for. The HOFTRONIC panels are very economical with 36 Watt and 125lm/W. These are LED panels with an extremely high light output at low energy consumption. With these HOFTRONIC LED panels you can make any building more sustainable. No matter whether it is your office building, your hairdresser's shop or your shop.

    HOFTRONIC LED panels are not like any other LED panel light. Thanks to the backlit technology, the LED panels are extra durable. You don't have to worry about dark spots, which do occur with panels without backlit technology. Discolouration of the diffuse panel with HOFTRONIC LED panels is also a thing of the past! With traditional panels you will notice after a while that they are yellowing, which will also change the light output.

    The LED panels of HOFTRONIC are produced from high quality materials and have a better heat conduction than a traditional panel. The HOFTRONIC panels do not heat up quickly and therefore have a longer lifespan of no less than 50,000 burning hours.

    Why choose LED high bay lights instead of metal halide, fluorescent, or other conventional high bay lights?

    Historically, various lighting technologies were (and still are) used in warehouse and industrial settings when high bay lights were required. Some of the most common include metal halide (MH), high pressure sodium (HPS), and fluorescent. While each of these bulbs have their merits, industrial LED lighting outperforms its conventional counterparts in important ways. Let’s take a look at some of the various considerations when deciding whether an LED retrofit is appropriate for your warehouse or industrial space.

    Industrial LED lighting vs metal halide high bay lights: If you’ve ever been to a ballgame, you've likely seen metal halide illuminating the field. MH lamps are common in sporting and warehouse/industrial uses (as well as any setting where large, high spaces need to be illuminated). Benefits of MH lights include decent color rendering and comparatively adequate foot-candle levels (as opposed to other types of conventional bulbs). Some of their major drawbacks are a long time to warm up (sometimes 15-30 minutes) and a high cost to maintain, and their failure characteristics include flickering on and off. This is in addition to the fact that much of the energy they produce is wasted as heat. Read more about LED versus Metal Halide Lights.

    LED high bay lighting vs high pressure sodium (HPS) lights: HPS lights are often used in warehouse, industrial, business, and recreational facilities where high bay lighting is appropriate. Their benefits include cheap selling price, high energy efficiency (low operating costs), and a relatively long lifespan. HPS lighting technology retains these advantages over most conventional bulbs, but they lose on all three counts to LED high bay light. The downsides of HPS bulbs include the worst color rendering on the market and a warm up period. Read more about LED versus High Pressure and Low Pressure Sodium Lights.

    Where Should I Put LED Downlights?

    LED down light is a great option for large rooms and/or rooms with low ceilings. Recessed lights blend in with the ceiling, so they will not use as much space as traditional hanging light fixtures.

    Lights can be spaced evenly throughout a room, and since they are recessed, they are discreet enough that you can install more fixtures than you otherwise would.  This means that light can reach all corners of the room.

    How Do I Install an LED Downlight?

    LED downlights require you to insert holes in the ceiling to install a new light fixture, or you can retrofit a preexisting ceiling lighting fixture.

    You will most likely require a new junction box if you do not already have one in the area you want to install the recessed lighting fixtures. A junction box is placed in the ceiling above the light fixture and contains electric wires and cables necessary to connect the light to the main power source of the building.

    Architecture and building regulations vary, so you must check your downlight’s Insulation Contact (IC) rating to ensure that it is compatible with the type of insulation used in your home or business.


  Those Anti-Covid Plastic Barriers Probably Don’t Help and May Make Things Worse
Geschrieben von: hwoieias - 29.10.2021, 02:11 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

Those Anti-Covid Plastic Barriers Probably Don’t Help and May Make Things Worse

    Covid precautions have turned many parts of our world into a giant salad bar, with plastic barriers separating sales clerks from shoppers, dividing customers at nail salons and shielding students from their classmates.

    Intuition tells us a plastic shield would be protective against germs. But scientists who study aerosols, air flow and ventilation say that much of the time, the barriers don’t help and probably give people a false sense of security. And sometimes the barriers can make things worse.

    Research suggests that in some instances, a barrier protecting a clerk behind a checkout counter may redirect the germs to another worker or customer. Rows of clear plastic shields, like those you might find in a nail salon or classroom, can also impede normal air flow and ventilation.

    Under normal conditions in stores, classrooms and offices, exhaled breath particles disperse, carried by air currents and, depending on the ventilation system, are replaced by fresh air roughly every 15 to 30 minutes. But erecting plastic barriers can change air flow in a room, disrupt normal ventilation and create “dead zones,” where viral aerosol particles can build up and become highly concentrated.

    “If you have a forest of barriers in a classroom, it’s going to interfere with proper ventilation of that room,” said Linsey Marr, professor of civil and environmental engineering at Virginia Tech and one of the world’s leading experts on viral transmission. “Everybody’s aerosols are going to be trapped and stuck there and building up, and they will end up spreading beyond your own desk.”

    There are some situations in which the clear shields might be protective, but it depends on a number of variables. The barriers can stop big droplets ejected during coughs and sneezes from splattering on others, which is why buffets and salad bars often are equipped with transparent sneeze guard above the food.

    But Covid-19 spreads largely through unseen aerosol particles. While there isn’t much real-world research on the impact of transparent barriers and the risk of disease, scientists in the United States and Britain have begun to study the issue, and the findings are not reassuring.

    Three Types of Acrylic Sheet

    There are three main ways plexiglass is manufactured. Each style of plexiglass acrylic has its own advantages and disadvantages. This article will outline the differences.

    Cell Cast Acrylic Sheet

    This style is produced by melted liquid PMMA resin poured between two plates of glass

    Least amount of expansion and contraction

    Highest margin of error on thickness tolerance

    Standard thickness tolerance from .118” - .500” is +/- 8%

    This is the best material to use when cutting or routing

    Highest molecular weight

    Widest range of colors available

    Standard material for signs, aquariums, and high-end fabrication

    Continuous Cast Acrylic Sheets

    This style is produced by pouring melted liquid PMMA resin between two belts of polished stainless steel

    Best material consistency

    Least amount of expansion and contraction

    2nd best thickness tolerance

    Widest ranges of sizes available up to 9’ wide and 16’ long

    Standard material for forming, fabrication, and skylights

    Extruded Acrylic Sheets

    Semi-soft melted resin is pushed between rollers and cut to size

    Highest internal stress within the sheet

    Most expansion and contraction

    Generally, the best thickness consistency

    Thickness tolerance +/- 10%

    Softest sheet

    Gums up routers more when cutting

    Easy to glue

    Standard material for displays, and replacement windows. Some signage acrylic sheet uses.

    Should you invest in a set of side window visors?

    Automotive styling is a strange creature. For decades, external windshield visors ruled the black top with one-piece metal shades, adorning the tops of many vehicles from about the 1940s. Some of these were externally adjustable, others with remote controls inside, and some just fixed at the proper angle to keep glare from blinding drivers.

    At about the same time, side-window visors — or deflectors — first appeared, although they never really caught on like windshield visors did. But they’re still in the game and used by more than just smokers who want to be able to keep their windows slightly open without getting soaked in the rain; they’re also handy if you’ve parked in direct sunlight and want some ventilation without worrying about a sudden rain shower.

    These come in two basic styles: peel-and-stick units that mount to the window frame, or the in-channel type that slides into the horizontal soft channel the glass closes into. The latter brings a cleaner look and are less likely to be damaged by car-wash brushes or normal wear and tear. The peel-and-stick style, though, may damage paint if they aren’t removed carefully, should you need to replace a broken visor. Installing either is a basic do-it-yourself job.

    There’s a major drawback to some of the in-channel mounted visors, though. When it comes to one-touch power windows, most come with a safety mechanism that reverses the direction when closing the window to avoid pinching, say, a finger or a hand. If your visor kit has too thick an edge and your one-touch windows have this override, they will never close properly.

    Proper kits for these types of windows exist, though. These come with small and thin metal clips that let the glass close completely without any interference. But if you can’t readily find this type of kit, you may be stuck with the external, peel-and-stick type.

    If you ever have to remove a peel-and-stick, tape-mounted anything on a vehicle — including window visor— use some paint-safe solvent to weaken the glue to make the removal process easier. If you’re left with a strip of unsightly glue remnants, there’s an alternative to rubbing it off with your fingers; most auto parts stores will carry a trim adhesive remover wheel. The surface looks and smells like a pencil eraser, and it mounts to a power drill. This will easily take off any adhesive without damaging paint.

    Why should you upgrade to Acrylic Displays Stands?

    Display Stands have been put up since a long time. They are used to arrange the products in an organized manner. Arranging them in an organized manner help products look appealing and systematic. Acrylic Display stands are transparent display stands which can arrange products into categories making it easy for people to purchase the products. Retail business has flourished through the years due to acrylic display stands. They help in keeping the great products organized and to the point.
The various advantages of having acrylic display stands in the shop are:
 
? Durable
Acrylic stands extremely durable over the years. The material is relatively unbreakable than other materials. The duration of the stand is good and feasible to the price. The duration of the stand makes it the first choice of the retailers. To use glass stands in the stores is not practical, hence acrylic stand is a special type of plastic which is made for stores exclusively.
 
? Smart Display of Products
Acrylic stands are practical display of products. The transparent material makes a customer see through the material. This transparency makes it easier for them to choose a product. The stand also can carry the products in a neatly designed manner. They also support heavy products and things. They prove to be a smart way of displaying things as they are transparent. Many products can be displayed at the same time.

? Minimal Maintenance
Acrylic Display Stands need minimal maintenance as compared to other materials. Acrylic is steady and strong carrying heavy weights. They can be potentially used for carrying anything. The appearance of the stand can be customized according to the products which are to be displayed.

? Various Shapes
Various shapes of stands are needed to incorporate the products effectively on a stand. Acrylic material offers a good flexibility in molding the material into any shape. They can also be easily duplicated to create uniform stands in various stores.
Brand ME Adv offers the best acrylic display stands in Dubai. We provide customized stands according to the need of your product. It is necessary to build a stand which is strong and steady. A strong stand will have good longevity period. Nicely made stand can also be reused at various places and stores. We make sure the stands look appealing and presentable. Acrylic display stand are seen in most of the retail shops today.


  UGG Dakota Chestnut
Geschrieben von: 886kkg46 - 28.10.2021, 02:12 - Forum: Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

[Bild: num085.jpg]
La Dakota è una pantofola per interni ed esterni ispirata ai mocassini, perfetta da indossare tutto il giorno. Una suola in gomma sagomata consente UGG Ciabatte Nere flessibilità e durata. Offerto nelle migliori pelli scamosciate e pelli, è completamente foderato in pelle di pecora di prima scelta.

Una suola in gomma flessibile aggiunge versatilità indoor/outdoor a una comoda pantofola di UGG®, 100% autentico fornitore preferito di calzature favolosamente calde e comode. La fodera in peluche realizzata in vero shearling o UGGpure™, un tessuto realizzato interamente in lana ma realizzato per sentirsi e indossare come il vero shearling.

Pantofole in cui puoi vivere, UGG Dakota Chestnut le nostre Dakota più vendute sono realizzate in morbida lana e una suola in gomma che si sposta facilmente sia all'interno che all'esterno. Indossali in casa o fuori abbinati a pantaloni culotte e una giacca di pelle. Nel 1978, un surfista australiano ha portato i suoi amati stivali di pelle di pecora nel sud della California e ha fondato UGG.

A metà degli anni '80, il marchio era diventato un punto di riferimento nei negozi di surf su e giù per la costa e un'icona dello stile di vita da spiaggia. UGG Ciabatte Donna Ora amato ovunque dalle persone che apprezzano lo stile comodo, UGG offre calzature casual e articoli accoglienti per la casa, insieme ai suoi stivali caratteristici.

https://www.discountsoutdoors.com/


  UGG Dakota Femme
Geschrieben von: 886kkg46 - 28.10.2021, 02:10 - Forum: Foren-Spiele - Keine Antworten

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Le Dakota est une pantoufle d'intérieur et d'extérieur inspirée du mocassin, UGG Chausson Pas cher parfaite à porter toute la journée. Une semelle extérieure en caoutchouc moulé offre flexibilité et durabilité. Offert dans les plus beaux daims et cuirs, il est entièrement doublé en peau de mouton de première qualité.

Une semelle en caoutchouc flexible ajoute une polyvalence intérieure/extérieure à une pantoufle confortable d'UGG®, fournisseur préféré de Grosses soldes chaussures fabuleusement chaudes et confortables. La doublure en peluche fabriquée à partir de peau de mouton véritable ou UGGpure™, un textile entièrement fabriqué à partir de laine mais conçu pour se sentir et se porter comme une peau de mouton véritable.

Les pantoufles dans lesquelles vous pouvez vivre, notre best-seller Dakota, sont fabriquées UGG Dakota Femme avec de la laine douce et une semelle en caoutchouc qui se déplace facilement à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur. Portez-les à la maison ou à l'extérieur avec une jupe-culotte et une veste en cuir. En 1978, un surfeur australien a apporté ses bottes en peau de mouton bien-aimées en Californie du Sud et a fondé UGG.

Au milieu des années 1980, la marque était devenue un pilier des magasins de surf le long de la côte et une icône du style de vie à la plage. UGG Chausson Multicolore Désormais appréciée partout par les personnes qui apprécient le style confortable, UGG propose des chaussures décontractées et des articles confortables pour la maison, ainsi que ses bottes signature.

https://www.fastwinter.com/


  UGG Dakota Slipper Tobacco
Geschrieben von: 886kkg46 - 28.10.2021, 02:07 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

[Bild: num096.jpg]
The Dakota is a moccasin inspired indoor and outdoor slipper, perfect for all day wear. UGG Black Friday Deals A molded rubber outsole allows for flexibility and durability. Offered in the finest suedes and leathers, it is fully lined in top grade sheepskin.

A flexible rubber sole adds indoor/outdoor versatility to a cozy slipper from UGG®, favorite purveyor of fabulously warm and comfy footwear. Soft and Comfortable The plush lining crafted from genuine shearling or UGGpure™, a textile made entirely from wool but crafted to feel and wear like genuine shearling.

Slippers you can live in, our best,selling Dakota is crafted with soft wool and a rubber sole that travels both indoors and out with ease. Wear them around the house or out paired with culottes and a leather jacket.UGG Dakota Slipper Tobacco In 1978, an Australian surfer brought his beloved sheepskin boots to Southern California and founded UGG.

By the mid 1980s, the brand had become a mainstay in surf shops up and down the coast and an icon of the beach lifestyle. UGG Cyber Monday 2021 Now loved everywhere by people who appreciate comfy style, UGG offers casual footwear and cozy items for the home, along with its signature boots.

https://www.aesthetichyper.com/


  How to Use a Heat Press Machine – 7 Easy Steps to You Get Started
Geschrieben von: lacaeias - 27.10.2021, 06:57 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

How to Use a Heat Press Machine – 7 Easy Steps to You Get Started

    If you’re new to heat press machines then look no further. This is the basic guide on how to get started with a heat press machine.

    What is a Heat Press Machine?

    People keep asking how to use a heat press machine.

    Some even ask what it is.

    A heat press machine, heat transfer printing, t shirt heat press or simply t shirt press is the modern, no-fuss way of printing artwork onto t-shirts.

    It is a great alternative to the classic screen printing.

    Of course, when it comes to quality and longevity, screen printing still wins the game.

    But from the regular customers’ point of view, they can’t tell the difference between a screen printed tee and one from a t shirt press.

    This is a good thing for t-shirt entrepreneurs because not only is heat press printing easy and affordable to do, it also makes custom t-shirt printing possible.

    With screen printing, the customers have to order in large quantities or else it would be too expensive per piece.

    But with heat press machine or t shirt press, it’s still affordable even if they order one or one thousand.

    No wonder the t shirt heat press is a favorite of many t-shirt entrepreneurs.

    If you just bought one, you might be wondering how to use a roll heat press.

    Well, here is a basic guide on how to use the machine.

    Using the Machine

    As we all know, not all heat press machines are created equal.

    That’s why it’s not uncommon or unusual to ask how to use a heat press machine.

    There are those machines that are just functional (very basic) which is good for small jobs and home use.

    They’re much more affordable and could be perfect if you’re just starting out and you prefer to save a few hundred bucks.

    The professional machines are geared for making bulk orders.

    They have a much bigger platen (metal board) for a bigger working area to cater large garments.

    The professional t shirt press is also complete with more sophisticated time, temperature, and pressure settings.

    This is perfect for t-shirt entrepreneurs who are planning to offer orders by the hundreds in the future.

    But whether you’re using the basic or the pro, heat press machines are basically operated the same way.

    Here are step-by-step instructions on how to use a heat press machine:

    Turn on the power by flipping the on/off switch

    Turn the thermostat knob to the right until you see the red heating light

    When the thermometer indicates the desired temperature for your transfer, turn the knob back to the left until the heating light turns off. The heating light will go on and off to regulate your desired temperature

    If your machine has a digital timer, press it to start the timer and when you hear the alarm, press stop to reset

    Lift up the handle to open the press

    Lay out t-shirt and lay Transfer Paper onto shirt facing down

    Bring the handle down. The handle should lock firmly in place

    Set the timer based on the instructions on your Transfer Paper

    Lift the handle to open the press

    Peel the Transfer Paper from the shirt

    Allow at least 24 hours for the print to “lock” before washing the t-shirts

    Tips When Using a Heat Press

    Don’t be scared of applying too much heat because it takes a lot of heat to transfer the artwork properly and evenly.

    If you don’t apply a lot of heat, the artwork might not stick to the shirt properly and would cause issues during washing.

    If you’re scared of burning the tee shirt, sample print on an old shirt you don’t mind burning.

    It’s always scary on the first few tries but your confidence will eventually develop as you get the hang of printing shirts and eventually know how to use a heat press machine.

    Different Types Of Industrial Printing Machines

    In the industrial set up of the economy, the printing machine is growing in large numbers. Different printing techniques and processes are used by every industry for effective communication. Any machine used in printing ink on the substrate (printing medium) which can be cloth, paper or plastic, is referred to as the printing machinery. By applying pressure to the substrate, the printing machinery transfers the ink on the printing medium resting on an inked platform composed of movable type. The development of industrial printing machines changed a lot of things in the world. It would make transfer and preservation of historical records, scientific findings, and knowledge easy and possible. There's a great advancement in the printing machinery introduced in the market today given the improvement in science and technology. There's a competition in the industry, as many companies are now making printing press. As every company is introducing better features and making an effort to overcome the other competitors, this has led to the introduction of many enhanced features in printing machinery. With the introduction of various features in these types of machinery, printing is now easier to be done than it was in earlier days.

    Today, printing machinery is available in many sizes to suit different needs. Bigger sizes of printing machinery are available for heavy-duty printing or big-time printing businesses. You can get small and medium sizes too for small and medium printing businesses. The machinery size determines the volume of printing that will be done in a day, to a greater extent. When compared with small-sized printing machinery, the heavy industrial printing machines can print a lot of things per hour or regularly. There are different types of printing machines for printing on a different medium since different printing machines make use of different printing technology. Each of the below-mentioned printing machinery is meant to serve a particular purpose. You must consider your printing needs or the type of printing that you are doing before you want to buy or order for your printing machine. Several factors such as the size, the type of printing done, the seller, the brand, and others determine the cost.

    Types Of Printing Machines

            Digital Printers
       
            Ink-jet Printers
       
            Screen Printers
       
            Embossing Machines
       
            Flexographic Printing Machine
       
            Letterpress Printing Machines
       
            Offset Printers
       
            Laser printers
       
            Wireless Printers
       
            3D Printers
       
            Thermographic Printers
       
            Electrostatic Printing Machine
       
            Pad Printers
       
            Rotogravure Printing Machines
       
    Attractive Sublimation Printer Seeks the Perfect Heat Press

    The importance of matching the right heat-transfer press with your dye-sublimation printer

    by Lily Hunter, Product Manager for Dye-Sublimation Technology at Roland DGA

    Okay, so you’ve got a dye-sublimation printer in mind, but you’re wondering what kind of heat press will complete your perfect dye-sublimation workflow? There are many options out-there and choosing the right heat press isn’t easy. Much depends on the type of products and applications that are in your business plan, and other factors, like size, type, and cost will need to be considered.

    Heat presses are designed for specific applications and come in all styles, sizes and with very different price tags – presses can run from $1K to $100K. The following tips outline some of the most important points to keep-in-mind when purchasing a heat press to combine with your dye-sublimation printer.

    Make the Investment – For the Long-Term

    Why invest in high-quality dye-sublimation printing technology like the Roland DG XT-640 or RT-640 that produces a high-quality product, just to compromise on a cheap heat press and shoot yourself in the foot? If you base your decision solely on price, then you may regret it in the long run. Whether you’re looking for a small-format or large-format heat press, cheaper models simply don’t offer the build quality or level of sustained heat and pressure that is required to produce professional results when transferring graphics.

    Some of the cheaper clam, swing away and flatbed heat press has flimsy heater blocks made from thin materials that heat up fast but cool down too quickly – failing to maintain an even heat. Whereas a machine with a heavy platen takes longer to heat up but maintains a regular heat and ensures that each press has the same consistency and quality of image and color. When physically comparing heat presses, trust your instincts. If a press doesn’t feel robust and well-made, then it most likely isn’t and probably won’t perform properly.

    WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN A PERFECT PRESS

    Does size matter?

    Firstly, you’ll need to think about what your end game is, i.e., what are you producing and what do you plan to produce. Heat presses range in heat block sizes from around 6”x 8” for a light-use press, right up to oversized 44”x 64” and beyond. Right now, you’re probably considering either a desktop-sized press for apparel or product customization, or a shop-sized press that will allow you to branch out into fabrics, soft-signage and larger scale sublimation.

    The size of heat presses are so many and varied. As a rule, it’s always better to think bigger to allow yourself the ability to expand your product range. However, if you want something strictly for simple customizations of t-shirts and apparel, a large flatbed or calender press can sometimes be counter-productive and you’ll find that a smaller swing-away or clam press for different apparel sizes is actually more efficient. You may find that a couple of these smaller sized heat presses that can be operated by multiple people might be more effective for your production model than one large-format machine.

    Consistent heat

    Heat presses need to be heated to about 400 degrees fahrenheit for sublimation inks to transfer from the paper to the polymer fibers. This transfer has to be smooth and even for the process to work properly and for the image transfer to be consistent from one pressing to the next. Some heat presses may look really high-tech and snazzy, but under-the-cover it may be a different story.

    Another issue with cheaper heat presses is having too few heater windings (heater coils) in heater blocks or heater windings that are too sparsely placed. This causes cold spots and inconsistent transfer. The more windings a press has, the quicker it will heat up and regain any heat loss between jobs.


  Narrow UD tapes to bridge the ATL-AFP gap
Geschrieben von: lacaeias - 27.10.2021, 06:55 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

Narrow UD tapes to bridge the ATL-AFP gap

    It is well understood that automated tape laying (ATL) and automated fiber placement (AFP) were the enabling technologies in the application of carbon fiber composites in major aerostructures for the Boeing 787 and the Airbus A350 aircraft. Prior to the development of these planes, composites had been applied in gradually increasing amounts in commercial aircraft for more than 30 years, but mainly in secondary structures using hand layup and some automated manufacturing processes.

    With the 787 and the A350, however, Boeing (Seattle, Wash., U.S.) and Airbus (Toulouse, France) responded to demand for lighter weight aircraft, which accelerated adoption of composite materials and processes for use in fuselage skins, stringers, frames, wing skins, wing spars, wing boxes and tail structures. ATL and AFP led the charge, allowing each OEM, and their suppliers, to efficiently lay down large amounts of prepregged UD-tape and tows.

    ATL found a place fabricating wing structures, which, being modestly contoured, took advantage of the wide format (3, 6 or 12 inches) of the tape products, which could be laid down quickly. However, what ATL offered in speed and volume it sacrificed in conformability.

    AFP, on the other hand, which lays down multiple tows 0.125 to 0.5 inch wide, found a place fabricating fuselage and other more contoured structures that demand maximum flexibility and conformability. However, what ATL offered in conformability it sacrificed in speed and volume.

    Further, as enabling as these technologies were, they clearly reflected the state of ATL/AFP art at the time of the planes’ initial development, almost 20 years ago now. Indeed, the production pace of the 787 and the A350 (each now less than 10/month in light of the coronavirus pandemic) is well-aligned with previous-generation ATL/AFP technologies, which are relatively slow. These technologies also depend on human operators to provide in-process visual inspection and quality control, checking for the laps, gaps, wrinkles, foreign object debris (FOD) and other flaws endemic to the automated laydown process. This quality control step represents a significant bottleneck in the manufacture of composite structures.

    But as commercial aircraft manufacturers look to the future (well beyond the coronavirus pandemic) and the aircraft they will develop — particularly new single-aisle (NSA) programs to replace the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 — shipset volumes are likely to be on the order of 60-100 per month. This demands composite materials and process capability orders of a magnitude more efficient than those used to fabricate structures for the 787 and the A350.

    Honeycomb panel applications

    EconCore has granted plastic film company Renolit a license for the continuous production of honeycomb panel.

    Renolit has reportedly used the honeycomb in its Gorcell range of products for automotive, outdoor kitchens, truck superstructures, and bakery panels applications. More recently, Renolit has produced products for gardens, balconies and terraces made with honeycomb panels.

    According to EconCore, the honeycomb has helped Renolit improve panel planarity, reduce golf ball effect, and create smooth, scratch free surfaces.

    The Renolit Gorcell production process includes film unwinding, vacuum forming, core calibration, skin layer lamination, panel calibration and cutting.

    This story uses material from EconCore, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

    Scanning electron microscopy and digital image correlation observations reveal the failure mechanisms of overmolded hybrid composites. The failure behavior of overmolded hybrid composites is mainly CFRT laminates failure for all cases. The evolution of non-uniform strain fields indicates that the fracture of overmolded thermoplastic composites may initiate at the edges and spread out to the far fields.

    INTRODUCTION

    Wood is a renewable, ecological raw material employed to manufacture high quality furniture and everyday products. Its versatile utilization in numerous branches of the wood industry exerts considerable influence on the intensive exploitation of wood resources. The above-mentioned factors clearly show that there are reasons to replace traditional panel materials, such as plywood (PW), particleboard (PB), oriented strand board (OSB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), and high-density fiberboard (HDF), with lightweight sandwich honeycomb panels. These panels are characterized by relatively high strength and stiffness (Khan 2006; Schwingshackl et al. 2006; Jen and Chang 2008; Smardzewski 2013). According to Negro et al.(2011), the density of light honeycomb panels should not exceed 500 kg/m3.

    The use of honeycomb panels with paper cores manufactured from hexagonal cells is quite widespread. However, during the manufacturing process these cells acquire irregular shapes of non-regular hexagons (Xu et al. 2008). In a study conducted by Smardzewski and Prekrat (2012) it was demonstrated that the core of a honeycomb panel made of irregular hexagonal cells placed between two HDF panels equalizes quite well the stresses that develop in the facings. The above researchers observed that the stiffness and strength of the honeycomb panels were affected significantly by the paper grammage as well as the cell shapes and dimensions.

    Honeycomb structures find widespread application in the motor, airplane, and military industries (Schmueser and Wickliffe 1987). In the furniture industry, due to economic reasons, honeycomb panels with thicknesses exceeding 25 mm (Barboutis and Vassiliou 2005; Smardzewski 2015; Smardzewski and Jasińska 2016) are preferred. Furthermore, physico-chemical properties of honeycomb panels with hexagonal cells manufactured from light metals are commonly known (Paik et al. 1999; Schwingshackl et al. 2006; Said and Tan 2008).

    To increase the stiffness of wood-based honeycomb panels, the type and thickness of their facings (Meraghni et al. 1999; Sam-Brew et al. 2011; Chen and Yan 2012) were changed, the paper used to manufacture them was impregnated, and the dimensions as well as the shapes of the core cells were changed (Majewski and Smardzewski 2012). In addition, recommendations were made regarding factors that should be taken into account during the production process of paper cores of honeycomb panels intended for the furniture industry (Sam-Brew et al. 2011). For the core with hexagonal cells, these suggestions included: cell dimension, filling height, filling density, as well as cell orientation with respect to the panel sheet. In addition, it was confirmed many times that the honeycomb panel stiffness depends on the stiffness of the external facings. On the basis of a four-point bending, it was demonstrated that to reduce deflection of a honeycomb panel with a paper core and wood base facings, core cells should be as small as possible, whereas the core height should be as large as possible (Sam-Brew et al. 2011). It has been shown that honeycomb panels have higher values of shear modulus and higher stiffness when planes of common core cell walls are oriented parallel to the longer side of the panel (Bitzer 1997). The enlargement of the inclination angle of the cell walls increases the panel density and, by doing so, it significantly enhances its strength and stiffness (Majewski and Smardzewski 2013).

    Hexagonal, regular core cells ensure panel isotropy, whereas the elongated cells affect their orthotropy (C?té et al. 2004; Smardzewski and Prekrat 2012). The honeycomb panel core and facing isotropy exert a positive influence on the processes of their cutting by minimizing the amount of waste during the production process. Simultaneously, isotropy assures the uniform bending stiffness in mutually perpendicular directions. In contrast, orthotropy interferes with panel cutting efficiency, although it does has an advantageous influence on improved stiffness and strength of rectangular panels along one preferred direction. This is an exceptionally useful property when designing shelves and horizontal partitions in cabinet furniture. Rectangular cells constitute a special case of core polygonal cells. Their shape and arrangement in the honeycomb panel core can have a crucial impact on improved multilayer panel stiffness. Based on the available literature, it has not yet been analyzed to what extent elongated, rectangular paper core cells affect the mechanical properties of furniture honeycomb panels and the orthotropic strength of such panels.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the orientation of the rectangular cells of the paper core on the mechanical properties of three-layer furniture panels. The cognitive objective of the experiments was also to ascertain relative density and elasticity constants of the designed cells. The authors decided to compare the results of the empirical experiments of cell elasticity moduli with the results of analytical calculations. The practical goal of the investigation was to show the possibilities of substituting cores with hexagonal cells used in furniture panels with cores with rectangular cells.

    Global Unidirectional Tape (UD Tape) Industry Research and Trend Analysis Report

    In addition to lightweight, UD tape also has the advantages of thermoforming and other advantages, and can be used as a structural supplementary material. Automobile exhaust emissions are one of the main culprits of greenhouse gas sources, which also increase the environment and manufacturers' costs. By using new materials such as UD tape, the vehicle can be made lighter and carbon emissions can be reduced. However, these fiber tapes are expensive and difficult to mass produce. To solve this problem, five European partners funded by the European Union gathered together to carry out a project called FORTAPE, covering the entire industrial chain. The project requires a wide range of beneficiaries to develop new integrated technologies that make the most effective use of materials and energy, so that UD tape can be better applied to vehicles and aircraft.

    UD tapes using PP are easy to thermoform and can also be formed into complex shapes. In an EU initiative, it was first proposed to use a cost-effective method to produce unidirectional fiber belts, which can be used to manufacture and reinforce parts on cars and airplanes. This solution will make parts lighter and more environmentally friendly. UD tape can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of plastic parts, and can also be used to manufacture structural parts, strengthen and thermoform multilayers.

    UD tape production focuses on three main axes: UD tape manufacturing, parts manufacturing, and process and part modeling. At present, three different fiber impregnation technologies have been studied internationally to develop innovative processes for manufacturing UD carbon fiber and glass fiber tape to increase fiber content. The use of UD tape as a window regulator to enhance automation will help meet the cycle and output requirements of the automotive industry. At the same time, a window frame manufacturing process using fire-resistant polyamide UD tape will be developed for the aviation industry.

    The initial development focus has been primarily on automotive interiors, including seating area components, door side-impact beams, cross-car beams, brake pedals, steering-column holders, airbag modules, and front ends. “At this time of increasing fuel requirements for automotive, OEMs are putting a lot of emphasis on lightweighting,” says Calvin Nichols, market development manager for automotive seating at BASF in Wyandotte, Mich. BASF refers to the technology as “continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic” or CFRT, while Pittsburgh-based Lanxess typically calls it “nylon composite sheet hybrid technology.” Similarly, Engel in York, Pa., refers to its process as Organomelt and KraussMaffei, Florence, Ky., calls its version FiberForm. The technology has also been described as “organic sheet overmolding.”

    Whatever the label, this technology also has significant potential for use in other markets. There are variants of the technology in development that will further the use of thermoplastic composites in a range of industries that are seeking lightweight but high-strength material options, as well as the low cost, automation, and short cycle times possible with injection molding.

    Both Engel and KraussMaffei first demonstrated the technology in two elaborate molding cells at the K2010 show in Dusseldorf, Germany. There, Engel molded a steering-column holder and KraussMaffei a door side-impact beam. Both used Tepex composite sheets from Germany’s Bond-Laminates GmbH and nylon overmolding compounds from Lanxess. (Lanxess recently acquired Bond-Laminates.) The two demonstrations used robots (linear or six-axis) to preheat the sheet in an oven at 300 C for 30-40 sec and then transfer the hot sheet to the injection mold. Closing the mold preformed the sheet, and then more nylon was injected over it in specific areas. Cycle times ranged from 33 to 55 sec. (the latter limited by oven-heating capacity).

    Engel’s part, with its more complex geometry, was laser-trimmed outside the mold. In the case of KraussMaffei, which compounded the long-glass overmolding compound direct from roving on its IMC injection molding compounder, the robot transferred the net-shaped part to a quality-check station after molding.

    The two material suppliers displayed applications for the technology at K2010. Lanxess showed an Audi A8 front-end reinforcement molded by Germany’s Magna Decoma Exterior Systems, containing both aluminum and Tepex inserts overmolded with nylon 6. BASF displayed a seat back from Faurecia of France consisting of woven-glass/nylon sheet from California-based Performance Materials Corp., overmolded with a specially developed 35%-glass nylon 6 compound (BASF’s Ultramid CompoSIT XA3232) that combines stiffness, ductility, and Class-A-type finish. The part weighs about 20% less than standard seat backs and is expected to be commercial within the next two years.

    WHERE IS IT HEADING?

    Sources at these four suppliers foresee dramatic growth potential, starting with auto interior components but extending to exterior, chassis, and power-train applications. They also envision applications in aeronautics, trains, trucks, agricultural equipment, machinery manufacturing, and renewable-energy systems.

    BASF’s Nichols says, “Glass in a unidirectional form is much stronger than other forms of glass or ferrous and nonferrous metals. Such a sheet composite overmolded with nylon 6 has tensile strength as much as five times that of metals. Strength-to-weight ratio is dramatically improved over metals—twice that of steel and three-to-four times higher than a standard injection molded glass-filled thermoplastic. Stiffness-to-weight ratio with the continuous-glass composite laminate overmolded with nylon is eight times as much as steel.”

    Other thermoplastics considered as candidates for this technology include PP, PBT, PES, PEEK, nylon 612, and possibly nylon 66, depending in large part on how well they meet strict flammability requirements.

    Meanwhile, the machinery suppliers both have recently introduced new equipment to further progress in this nascent technology. Engel is recommending its new v-duo vertical large tonnage machines for Organomelt systems. Hydraulically powered with energy-saving servo-driven pumps, they are offered in five sizes from 400 to 2300 metric tons. The larger sizes are aimed at continuous-fiber composites, with their easy mold access to facilitate loading of reinforcing fabrics and organic sheets and tapes.


  You're (Probably) Not Salting Your Food Enough
Geschrieben von: lacaeias - 27.10.2021, 06:54 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

You're (Probably) Not Salting Your Food Enough

Season as you go

    In our Epi recipes, you'll find seasoning mentioned throughout the process: boiling water is salted; sautéed vegetables are seasoned while cooking; meat is sprinkled with salt and pepper before cooking; and dishes are finished with a final seasoning to taste.

    Each of these steps helps infuse flavor throughout the cooking process, so that the final dish is as delicious as possible. It's not enough to simply sprinkle a little salt on your food at the end of cooking—imagine if you roasted Thanksgiving's turkey and only sprinkled on salt at the end. The first bite might taste okay, but only the exterior is seasoned. Every other bite would be dry and bland.

    Vegetables, pasta, meats, they are all the same—in each step of cooking, you need to coax flavor out by adding a little salt, which helps draw out water and concentrate the food's natural flavors, as well as spices, which infuses flavor throughout its structure. By seasoning throughout the cooking process, every bite is infused with flavor, not just the exterior.

    And it's key to remember that last "season to taste" instruction. Yes, we've written a recipe (and tested it several times, by the way), making sure to include the amount of salt, pepper, and spices that yield a flavorful end dish.

    But those amounts can vary depending on your ingredients—especially vegetables—which can vary dramatically in terms of flavor. So before you serve, always (always, always) make sure to taste and season. Even if you've followed a recipe to a T, in the end, you are the cook, and you're responsible for making it taste delicious.

    Want to infuse even more flavor into your recipes? Finish them off with a final sprinkling of an herbed salt, adding flavor and color to boot.

    History of Sauces

    The word “sauce” is a French word that means a relish to make our food more appetizing.  Sauces are liquid or semi-liquid foods devised to make other foods look, smell, and taste better, and hence be more easily digested and more beneficial.

    Because of the lack of refrigeration in the early days of cooking, meat, poultry, fish, and seafood didn’t last long.  Sauces and gravies were used to mask the flavor of tainted foods.

    The main course, or primae mensai varied both in the number and elaboration of dishes.  Roast and boiled meat, poultry, game or other meat delicacies would be served.  No dish was complete without its highly flavoured and seasoned sauce.  Contrary to present day preference, the main object seemed to be to disguise the natural taste of food – possibly to conceal doubtful freshness, possibly to demonstrate the variety of costly spices available to the host.  Sometimes so many ingredients were used in a sauce it was impossible to single out any one flavour.  One Roman cook bitterly complained that some of his fellow cooks ‘When they season their dinners they don’t use condiments for seasoning, but screech owls, which eat out the intestines of the guests alive’.  Apicius wrote at the end of one of his recipes for a particularly flavoursome sauce, ‘No one at table will know what he is eating’.  These sauces were usually thickened with wheat flour or crumbled pastry.  Honey was often incorporated into a ‘sweet-sour’ dish or sauce.

    Highly flavoured sauces often containing as many as a dozen ingredients were extensively used to mask the natural flavours of Roman food.  The most commonly used seasoning was liquamen, the nearest equivalent today being a very strong fish stock, with anchovies as its main ingredient.  This was so popular that it was factory-produced in many towns in the Roman empire.

    Homemade Black Bean Sauce

    This is one of the most versatile Chinese sauces that goes well with almost any ingredients, and is also suitable for stir frying, baking, grilling, and steaming.

    I recommend that everyone who loves Chinese food have a jar of pre-made black bean sauce in their fridge. Here are the reasons:

            The sauce is extremely versatile. You can view it as soy sauce alternative, only more flavorful.
       
            The sauce is healthier than many other Chinese sauces because it contains less sugar.
       
            The sauce has a bit of thickening powder by itself, so you don’t always need to use extra cornstarch to thicken the sauce. One more prep step eliminated!
       
            Not only can you make stir-fried dishes with it, you can also use it to bake or steam food, marinate meat, or serve it as dipping sauce or noodle salad dressing.
       
    Introducing Homemade Black Bean Sauce

    Yes, you can buy bottled black bean sauce from the grocery store, but the homemade version contains more fresh aromatics, does not use additional starch to thicken the sauce, and contains no additives. I always suggest that you make your own for a more delicious and healthier option.

    Basic ingredient – fermented black beans

    The most important ingredient is fermented black bean. It has a deep umami flavor that is similar to soy sauce, but different in flavor and even richer. This is the base of the sauce.

    Thanks to almighty Amazon, you can even purchase the fermented black beans online without a trip to grocery store. However, if there is an Asian market nearby, I highly recommend you to get your ingredients there because it will be way cheaper. These black beans can stay in your fridge forever, so you can store them if you don’t have time to use them immediately.Once you get the fermented black beans, the rest of the ingredients are quite easy to find and it’s more likely that you will already have them at home.

    Seasoning powder

                Seasoning blends are mixture of ground or whole spices, herbs, seeds, or other flavorings. Seasonings such as apple pie spice are blends of several spices and are ready to use. Seasoning includes herbs and spices, which are themselves frequently referred to as “seasonings”. Seasoning includes a large or small amount of salt being added to a preparation. Other seasonings like black pepper and basil transfer some of their flavor to the food. A well designed dish may combine seasonings that complement each other. In addition to the choice of herbs and seasoning, the timing of when flavors are added will affect the food that is being cooked. In various cultures, meat may be existing as a seasoning techniques

    Preparation of seasoning powders

                The ingredients for making sweet potato seasoning powder such as sweet potato, onion, garlic and ginger were peeled and cut into small pieces. They were spread in the tray and placed under sunlight for about two days. And then 40 gm of dried sweet potato, 15 gm of dried onion, 8 gm of dried garlic, 1 gm of dried ginger, and 1 gm of dried black pepper were separately roasted in pan at 70 oC for 2 minutes. After that, the roasted ingredients were ground in the blender until all are well mixed and powder. During grinding, 30 gm of sugar and 5 gm of salt were added. The powder was screened with 100 mesh screen. Finally, as obtained sweet potato powder seasoning was added into airtight glass bottle.

    SEASONING SOUP

    Herbs and spices are essential to the art of soup making. In some soups, they're the central theme — but generally, they serve to enhance and complement the other ingredients. Frontier offers a full selection of soup seasoning, including:

            Basil: Good with tomato-base soups and many vegetables.
       
            Bay Leaf: Used in stews and with beans and vegetables. Remove the leaves before serving.
       
            Cayenne: Adds spicy hotness and may be used in place of black pepper.
       
            Celery Seed: A strong, distinctive flavor, to be used sparingly. Whole seeds should be cooked for at least an hour, while ground seed may be added towards the end of cooking.
       
            Chervil: A pungent addition to many thin soups, sometimes substituted for parsley.
       
            Chili Powder: Most often found in chili but also delicious in other soups.
       
            Chipotle powder: Adds heat and a touch of smoky flavor to Mexican style soups, bean soups or corn chowder.
       
            Cumin: Good in vegetable soups, chili, and other bean soups, as well as Mexican and Indian soups.
       
            Curry: A delicious addition to soups containing grains, vegetables, lentils, or split peas.
       
            Dill: Fragrant and delicious in potato or onion soups. Dill weed is best added near the end of cooking, while dill seed needs to cook for a long period and is best used ground.
       
            Fennel: Used sparingly, fennel's strong taste adds a delightful and distinctive touch to squash soup and beef stew.
       
            Garlic: Garlic adds instant flavor to almost any soup. It is available in a variety of forms—fresh, powdered, granulated, and flaked. Granulated is easy to measure and dissolves nicely if allowed to cook a few minutes before serving. Powdered garlic is less strong than granulated.
       
            Marjoram: Flavorful in minestrone, onion, chicken, and potato soups.
       
            Onion: Many soups start with the sautéing of onions, and for good reason! Onion is available in the same forms as garlic.
       
            Parsley: Parsley may be added to almost any soup. It adds lovely color and a refreshing taste. While fresh parsley is sometimes tough in soups, dried parsley is consistently tasty, easy to measure, colorful, and delicate.
       
            Rosemary: The clean, strong flavor of rosemary perks up vegetable or chicken soups. (Use it with a light touch.)
       
            Sea Salt: Salt soups sparingly. Use it to coax out other flavors rather than dominate your dish. Sea salt contains trace minerals and is free of additives sometimes found in table salt.
       
            Thyme: Release the distinctive flavor and aroma of thyme by crushing it between your fingers as you sprinkle it in vegetable and rice soups.
       
    You can also use dulse flakes (right out of the bag or toasted) in soups—especially Asian-style ones—to enhance flavor, boost nutrition and provide salt.

    Soups are a great place to experiment with spices. There are no hard and fast rules about what seasonings to use in what soups, but if you're feeling the need for some direction, here's a good place to start—the following list gives you some suggestions for using the spices described above and some others commonly used in soups:

            Bean soups: cumin, garlic, onions, parsley, sage, savory, thyme
       
            Beef, chicken and turkey soups: allspice, basil, bay leaf, cinnamon, curry powder, dill, garlic, ginger, mace, marjoram, nutmeg, onions, paprika, parsley, rosemary, saffron, sage, savory, thyme
       
            Fruit soups: anise, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, mace, mint, nutmeg, rosemary
       
            Seafood soups: basil, chives, curry powder, dill, garlic, ginger, marjoram, oregano, parsley, sage, savory, tarragon, thyme
       
            Tomato soups: basil, bay leaf, chives, garlic, oregano, parsley, rosemary, savory, tarragon, thyme
       
            Vegetable soups: basil, caraway, cayenne, chives, dill, garlic, marjoram, nutmeg, oregano, savory, tarragon, thyme
       
    And don't forget soup-enhancing seasonings at the table — vegetarian soy Bac'Uns  make great additions at the table to sprinkle on a bowl of potato, bean or creamy soups. And try toasted sesame seeds on Asian or vegetable soups.

    Frontier also offers several spice blends, each with its own unique flavor. Blends most suitable for soups include All-Seasons Salt, Celery Salt, Garlic Salt, Herbal Seasoning (no salt), Italian Seasoning, Mexican Seasoning and Onion Salt.

    Of course, all-purpose and ethnic blends like hot pot seasoning are always good bets, too.


  Polytetrafluoroethylene
Geschrieben von: lacaeias - 27.10.2021, 06:51 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

Polytetrafluoroethylene

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a strong, tough, waxy, nonflammable synthetic resin produced by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene. Known by such trademarks as Teflon, Fluon, Hostaflon, and Polyflon, PTFE is distinguished by its slippery surface, high melting point, and resistance to attack by almost all chemicals. These properties have made it familiar to consumers as the coating on nonstick cookware; it is also fabricated into industrial products, including bearings, pipe liners, and parts for valves and pumps.

    PTFE was discovered serendipitously in 1938 by Roy Plunkett, an American chemist for E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (now DuPont Company), who found that a tank of gaseous tetrafluoroethylene refrigerant had polymerized to a white powder. During World War II it was applied as a corrosion-resistant coating to protect metal equipment used in the handling of radioactive material for the Manhattan Project. For more than a decade after the war, PTFE saw little commercial use, owing to difficulties encountered in devising methods for processing the slippery, high-melting material. DuPont released its trademarked Teflon-coated nonstick cookware in 1960.

    PTFE Fine Powders

    Chemours is a leading producer of fluoropolymers that include Teflon? PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) fine powder resins.

    These fine powders may be paste-extruded to create continuous-length PTFE articles such as tubes, tapes, and membranes. PTFE fine powder is the preferred fluoropolymer for many applications, including breathable hydrophobic membranes, aerospace/automotive hoses, and high-performance wires and cables.

    Features and Benefits

    This family of fine powder fluoropolymer resins offers a wide range of characteristics that include:

    Excellent thermal stability

    High stress crack resistance

    High reduction ratio

    Excellent color and clarity

    Polytetrafluroethylene ultrafine powder

        PTFE ultra-fine powder can be prepared by irradiation at room temperature, followed by ultrafine grinding. Fresh PTFE material, scrap or recycled PTFE waste, etc., can be used to fabricate ultrafine powder. The use of recycled PTFE or waste to produce ultrafine powder can reduce the cost and achieve the recycling of resources. PTFE ultrafine powder is widely used as a functional additive in the fields of engineering plastics, anticorrosion coatings, nonstick coatings, coil coatings, powder coatings, and inks. Shamrock Technologies (the United States), Solvay Company (Italy), Lubrizol Corporation (Germany), Kitamura Company Ltd. (Japan) and many other companies produce PTFE ultrafine powder. In recent years, domestic Chinese enterprises have also made great progress in the technology of manufacturing PTFE ultrafine powder.
 
        The particle size of PTFE powder is usually tens to hundreds of microns, which is suitable for producing PTFE sheet and pipe. PTFE ultrafine powder can be made by polymerization, radiation degradation, and thermal cracking. The irradiated PTFE becomes very brittle, and can be further fabricated into ultrafine powder by grinding or air-jetting. The particle size is closely related to the absorbed dose. The higher the absorbed dose, the lower the relative molecular weight of PTFE, and the smaller the particle size of ultrafine powder. At present, PTFE ultrafine powder is mainly prepared by radiation degradation at home and abroad, since high energy beam can effectively break the molecular chains of PTFE at room temperature. For recycled PTFE, a very high absorbed dose is required for the fabrication of PTFE ultrafine powder. Hence, it is normally irradiated by EB accelerators. PTFE ultrafine powder is mainly used as an additive in lubricating oil and grease, ink, paint, engineering plastics, leather, rubber, etc., in order to improve antifriction and scratch-resistance.
   
    PTFE teflon powder is available as a white powder, often called fine powder.  PTFE fine powder is generally converted into usable articles (shapes, wire insulation and tapes, etc) via paste extrusion, followed by post extrusion heating to remove residual hydrocarbon solvents and to increase material density.

    Products manufactured with genuine Teflon PTFE fine powder are rated for continuous service temperatures up to 260°C (500°F).

    The properties of Teflon PTFE fine powder are very similar to those of standard Teflon? PTFE granular material.

    Insulation for wire and cable, tubing, pipe liners, films, sintered and unsintered tapes, micro-porous membranes, heat shrink tubing, bushings, push/pull cables, profile shapes and other end use components requiring a high performance fluoroplastic material.

    5 Key Products That Are Enhanced With PTFE Micropowders

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micropowders are used as additives in thousands of products. They can add lubricity or improve friction and wear characteristics of base materials. Because PTFE micron powder is milled very fine, it can be compounded in rubber, plastics, or dispersed in liquids. Here are 5 ideal applications:

    Printing Inks

    PTFE lubricant powders are superior to the conventional anti-scuff agents that are used in inks. They enhance the preparation of offset, heat-set, gravure and flexographic inks. They improve the rub and scuff resistance of printed stock. And they reduce “blocking,” the undesirable adhesion of a painted surface to another painted surface or material, reducing rejects.

    In addition, micropowders can be easily dispersed at room temperature to make processing cheaper and more efficient. Their lubrication properties reduce friction so they slide and stack easier, and their temperature resistant properties allow them to be used in temperatures up to 260 °C.

    Coatings and Industrial Finishes

    PTFE powders can be added to many industrial finishes to improve surface lubrication, reduce blocking and promote scuff resistance. For example, they impart abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance and anti-friction properties in bakeware and cookware, and can be used to provide a non-stick surface.

    Most bakeware and cookware are fabricated from strips of steel or aluminum that are pre-treated with a PTFE coating. Micropowders also act as a processing aid during the stamping, folding and cutting manufacturing process.

    Paints

    PTFE micropowders are added to decorative, masonry, aircraft and marine paints to improve their water resistance, scuff and abrasion resistance, and anti-fouling properties. These powders can also reduce flammability and improve paint’s spreading rate.

    The benefits of micropowder lubricants for paints include:

            Matte-based paints that are traditionally difficult to clean become easier with PTFE micropowders.
       
            Marine coatings exhibit excellent anti-fouling properties.
       
            Gloss coatings have a smoother surface and fewer imperfections due to the small particle size.
       
    Elastomers

    Lubricants are added to elastomer formulations to improve the coefficient of friction and wear properties versus solid lubricants, waxes, stearates, soaps, plasticizers and oils.

    Adding lubricant powders to natural rubbers and synthetic elastomers during processing gives finished moldings many of the surface slip characteristics of PTFE. These characteristics include: improved mold release, lower static and dynamic coefficients of surface friction, abrasion resistance, elimination of stick slip and improved tear strength.

    Oil and Grease

    PTFE micropowders are ideal for improving lubrication in applications that experience extreme pressures, temperatures and environments. They are also used in applications where conventional additives such as graphite and molybdenum are unsuitable.

    In addition, PTFE additives offer cleanliness, an important characteristic for greases used in food, pharmaceutical and dairy equipment. Because PTFE is not flammable, it is ideal for applications where the lubricants are exposed to gases and other potential fire hazards.

    PTFE micropowders provide benefits to a wide range of applications for various industries.


  Separating out foods into component molecules
Geschrieben von: lacaeias - 27.10.2021, 06:47 - Forum: Generelle Diskussionen - Keine Antworten

Separating out foods into component molecules

        Food is made up of many different chemical can components or parts, including vitamins, minerals, sugars, fibres, water, lipids, proteins and starches.
   
        In addition to these main nutrient components, many foods contain smaller amounts of biologically active chemicals. In plants, these are referred to as phytochemicals. Scientists can separate out all of these different components of foods.
   
    Why separate food into its component parts?

    There are many reasons why scientists might want to separate out the component parts of food. For example, the nutrigenomics project investigated why different people respond differently to different foods. It seems that sometimes these variations arise because of differences in our genes. This is because our genes can affect the way that our bodies deal with the chemical components that make up a particular food. As a result, some food can components might be particularly good for some people, and cause problems for others!

    The aim of the nutrigenomics project is to work out which specific food compounds are most helpful (or most harmful) to people with particular food-related diseases, like Crohn’s disease.

    How can different food components be separated?

    A range of different methods can be used to separate specific molecules out of foods using a range of different methods. These methods include: Differential solubility, ion exchange chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, and selective adsorption chromatography.

    Differential solubility

    Some molecules dissolve easily in water; other molecules will dissolve in hexane but not in water. This is because some molecules are more polar than others. Polar molecules dissolve in polar solvents, like water. Non-polar molecules dissolve in non-polar solvents, like hexane. Molecules like sugar are polar, whereas fat molecules are non-polar.

    Ion exchange chromatography

    Molecules have different charges (positive and negative). This property can be used as the basis of separation. The food sample (as a solution) is passed through a column containing beads that are charged. If the beads have a positive charge, negatively charged molecules in the food will attach but positively charged molecules will run easily through the column and can be collected.

    Size exclusion chromatography

    This has a sieving effect. Because molecules have different sizes, they move through a size exclusion chromatography column at different rates. Larger molecules are collected first, smaller molecules are collected last.

    Selective adsorption chromatography

    Because different molecules have different chemical properties, they are more or less able to adsorb (or stick) to materials such as silica gel. This means that they can be separated based on their polarity (degree of surface charge). For example, hydrocarbons (molecules with lots of carbon and hydrogen atoms) have no affinity for silica, whereas alcohols have strong affinity.

    How is the use of easy peel-off end in food packaging?

    The Easy peel off ends(lids), is a metal packaging form with high sealing and certain pressure resistance,is used in food canned packaging. The base material is made of tinplate or aluminum,after punching, drawing and curling, it can be safely opened after opening.

    It is covered with a metal composite membrane or a composite plastic membrane resistant to ultra-high temperature sterilization,with embossed processing, beautiful and easy to open.

    At metal sheet left by the punching process of the base lids can be recycled and reused,the food-grade composite membrane covered is small in thickness and quality, saving natural resources,after the consumer opens the end,  will not cause environmental pollution in case being discarded.

    The peel off end, is widely used,  widely used in the packaging of infant milk powder cans with high safety level,nowadays, meat、fruits、vegetables、coffee、tea and other packaging are gradually used.

    The peel off end varieties are currently used for dry powde、high-temperature sterilization,、with one-way valve ventilation, and also individualized transparent、 printed 、various sizes of large and small, inner ring is 0-shape Or D-shaped, the outer ring is round or square, etc., China uses a lot of two-dimensional code information technology, now has gradually become popular.

    Common types are as follows:

    Peel off end for dry powder packaging does not have high-temperature sterilization technology, is used in canned foods such as milk powder and snack foods, is more common in market.

    Retort peel off end has the characteristics of high temperature sterilization resistance. It can be used in canned foods such as meat, and consumers can easily cook food.

    Peel off end with valve embedded in lid is a one-way pressure relief valve, used in the packaging of fermented foods, such as in canned coffee, to effectively preserve the quality of coffee for a long time.

    Transparent peel off end, consumers can see the food they are tempted, have the characteristics of resistance to ultra-high temperature sterilization, UV resistance, water barrier、oxygen barrier, etc.,in recent years, a company in China named Zhejiang Bosun New Material & Tech Co., Ltd. in major technological breakthroughs ,is very novel form of packaging , is well received by consumers.

    Tea leaves in tea packaging are peel off end, in recent years by means of business and gatherings,deducting Chinese tea culture into another social culture with exquisite and noble love.

    The demand of the market has also led to the development of various types of production equipment. From material suppliers to CNC press machines, peel off end making machine, visual inspection machine, stamping box machine, filling and sealing machine, etc.,  complete supply chain has been formed and technology is more mature.

    Under the development trend of food safety and environmental protection, the material suppliers and the peel off end making machine are technically difficult. At present, Amcor Limited Company and China's one named Huzhou Jinjie Industry Co., Ltd. Is supplier of coating materials. Peel off end making machine, the previous technology is in the hands of SOUDRONIC AG in Switzerland,.Now, Hangzhou Sunking machinery Co., Ltd. Since 2006, after years of hard work, independent research and development, has mastered the technology of peel off end making machine and become a famous Chinese company in international metal packaging industry.

    Metal pails and drums are two storage containers that are similar in function, but vary in capacity and the pail drum components used to make them. Notice that pails hold only 7 gallons or less, while steel drums can hold far more. Also, the higher the gauge size of the material, the thinner it is. Pails are made up of 22-24 gauge metal while steel drums are composed of 20 gauge and under making them stronger. Pails typically have bails or handles attached to them for ease of carrying while drums do not.

    Many components that make up a steel drum, which is a much more complex design. Items such as fittings are indeed part of each item, though not labeled on both illustrations. These are the openings of the containers, which make it possible to pour out the contents of the container, and typically come in 3/4", 1-1/2“ &  2" sizes in both the Rieke and Tri-Sure brands. Other components include ears, which are attached to can or pail to hold bails/handles; beads (rolling hoops), which are rounded depressions on the surface of a container to improve its performance and the chime, which is a sort of “lip” on the top or bottom of the pail or drum.

    Manufacturing

    All metal containers must meet certain standards. The most important of these is compliance with UN Regulations. Such regulations mandate that steel pails and drums used in the U.S. need to comply with Department of Transportation standards if they are to be used in the transport of hazardous materials (Hazardous Materials Regulations Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards).

    To manufacture steel drums, plants complete the process during a formation phase. To start, the sheet metal to be used in making each drum enters an edge grinder, a machine that rids sheets of jagged edges, smoothing them instead. The steel sheets then enter a bender, which has a cylindrical mold, proceeding to curve and bend the metal.

    Next, various welding processes are employed. Once the metal is bent, it is fed by a worker into a spot welding machine, which begins to connect the two ends of the metal sheet into a tube by welding several points along the edge. After this, the two somewhat connected ends are seamed together completely by entering a seam welding machine, welding up and down the entire joint of sheet ends.

    Once the basic body of the drum has been created, it undergoes a rigorous manipulation process. The flanging operation includes feeding the drum into flange insertion machine to create rim indentations and edges on the top and bottom of the container. Following the creation of these edges, drums enter a bead expander, a machine that takes the drum horizontally and expands beads or rolling hoops around the circumference of the container. These hoops are created by cranking rods around the inside of the drum and serve to strengthen the body of the item. These outward facing hoops or beads are combined with inward facing circumferential indentations along both the top and bottom of each drum. The indentations are corrugated and are created with a corrugating machine.

    Now that the body has been created to the above specifications, the bottom piece of the container must be created and then connected. Drum bottoms first go through a cutting and embossing process. The bottoms are stamped down and cut in a pressing machine using special dies/molds. Once the container bottoms have been made, they enter a pre curler, a machine which smoothes the edges of each bottom piece to prepare it for seaming to the drum body. Ready to be added to containers, bottom pieces enter a seaming machine along with a drum body which rotates and presses the two pieces together. The now-seamed item prevents leakage of materials that the container will eventually hold.

    A freestanding container now formed, it’s time to add a top piece to the drum. Drum tops are formed in a similar manner as bottoms.  Once created, drum tops must be punched via a machine which will punch out holes in specific sizes and positions. These holes will hold flanges to be inserted next. The flange insertion process involves bending the insides of metal rings within a flange fitting die set/mold machine and inserting them into the drum openings/holes. These openings will later be the point at which drum contents are poured into or out of the container. When all is said and done, the top, now complete with flanged openings, is seamed to the body in a process not unlike that for bottom seaming to create a functional container. This completes the basic steel drum.

    Optional processes are employed, however, in steel drum production, depending on preference and end usage. Each drum may enter a paint booth machine, in which the drums are fed horizontally and rotated while the machine sprays and coats the drum exterior with paint. To complete the paint process, the containers are cooked in an oven to help dry and bring the paint to the correct shade.

    Much goes into understanding how metal containers work and how they are made. As these items are fairly large storage containers, both pails and drums do get most of their use in industrial settings such as holding chemicals, paints, coatings and petroleum products. Metal containers afford us many benefits as well, including capacity and strength.